Autonomy ( Wilfred Bonney 2013) Beneficence and non-maleficence The


Respect for autonomy, and the
necessity to obtain informed consent are important issues in medical ethics. Informed
consent must not be obtained under duress and the patient be in good mental
capacity with enough information that is making an informed decision. Patients
have the right to be informed about test errors. The informed consent serves as
an authoritative document indicating that the patient understands the risks and
benefits of a procedure 24. ( Wilfred Bonney 2013)

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Beneficence and non-maleficence

The beneficence ethical principle emphasizes
that the procedure be provided with the intent of doing
well for the patient involved.  24. In other
words, beneficence strives to promote benefits to patients by maximizing
positive outcomes while minimizing errors. Beneficence
demands that health care providers develop and maintain skills and knowledge,
continually update training, consider individual circumstances of all patients,
and strive for net benefit. 

The ethical principle of non-maleficence
emphasizes that a procedure does not harm intentionally or carelessly the patient involved or others in society. 23. Non-maleficence reassures
patients that no major harm will be inflicted upon them during test procedure. Specialists operate under the assumption that they are
doing no harm or at least minimizing harm by pursuing the greater good. 
However, because assistive reproductive technologies have limited success
rates uncertain overall outcomes, the emotional state of the patient may be
impacted negatively.  Wilfred Bonney 2013)


The idea that
the burdens and benefits of new or experimental treatments must be distributed
equally among all groups in society. Justice or fairness should be considered in
two different concepts including equity and procedural justice.

Equity refer to fairness in the distribution
of resources, opportunities and outcomes. Avoiding discrimination and
exploitation, and being sensitive to persons who are especially vulnerable to
harm or injustice. Procedural justice refers to a fair process for
making important decisions. All patients should be tested based on similar
way.  Procedures
uphold the spirit of existing laws and are fair to all players involved. Reproductive
technologies create ethical dilemmas because treatment is not equally available
to all people. (WHO-Guidance For Managing ethics)