Autonomy ( Wilfred Bonney 2013) Beneficence and non-maleficence The

AutonomyRespect for autonomy, and thenecessity to obtain informed consent are important issues in medical ethics. Informedconsent must not be obtained under duress and the patient be in good mentalcapacity with enough information that is making an informed decision.

Patientshave the right to be informed about test errors. The informed consent serves asan authoritative document indicating that the patient understands the risks andbenefits of a procedure 24. ( Wilfred Bonney 2013)Beneficence and non-maleficence The beneficence ethical principle emphasizesthat the procedure be provided with the intent of doingwell for the patient involved.

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 24. In otherwords, beneficence strives to promote benefits to patients by maximizingpositive outcomes while minimizing errors. Beneficencedemands that health care providers develop and maintain skills and knowledge,continually update training, consider individual circumstances of all patients,and strive for net benefit. The ethical principle of non-maleficenceemphasizes that a procedure does not harm intentionally or carelessly the patient involved or others in society. 23. Non-maleficence reassurespatients that no major harm will be inflicted upon them during test procedure.

Specialists operate under the assumption that they aredoing no harm or at least minimizing harm by pursuing the greater good. However, because assistive reproductive technologies have limited successrates uncertain overall outcomes, the emotional state of the patient may beimpacted negatively.  Wilfred Bonney 2013)JusticeThe idea thatthe burdens and benefits of new or experimental treatments must be distributedequally among all groups in society. Justice or fairness should be considered intwo different concepts including equity and procedural justice.

Equity refer to fairness in the distributionof resources, opportunities and outcomes. Avoiding discrimination andexploitation, and being sensitive to persons who are especially vulnerable toharm or injustice. Procedural justice refers to a fair process formaking important decisions. All patients should be tested based on similarway.  Proceduresuphold the spirit of existing laws and are fair to all players involved. Reproductivetechnologies create ethical dilemmas because treatment is not equally availableto all people. (WHO-Guidance For Managing ethics)