ATTENDING may lick CALF HOUSING:Individual pens up to 4

 ATTENDINGNEW BORN CALF:Cow-licks the calf dry and to stimulate its circulation and respirationPrimiparous-should assist by removing the phlegm from the nostrils and wipe it dry with aclean towel.Massage the calf vigorously with strawBLOCKAGEOF RESPIRATORY PASSAGE·       Holding the calf down or·       Take a twig of hay or grass and tickle inside the nostril or  ·       Person should suck out the mucus      CAREOF UMBILICAL CORD·       Ligature- 2 to 3 cm away from the body with  sterile thread and cut 1 cm distal to theligature·       Antiseptic lotion may be applied to the cut end. QUICK:Asquickly as possible after intestine – efficient – first 4 to 6 hrs·       After 12 hrs 50% efficiency –it lost after 24 hrs·       Should be given after birth – within 30 minutes to 2 hours·       Absorptive cells lining intestine are immature – Ig pass through easily·       Later transition to mature cells – limit Ig absorptionQUANTITY:               TIME PERCENT OF BODY WEIGHT    15 to 30 mts of life 5 to 8    10 to 12 hrs of life 5 to 8    2nd day 10    3rd day 10 QUALITY:Vaccinationduring dry period helps to increase the quality of immunoglobulins in colostrum.

Colostrum of mature cows have  higher quality.QUALITYOF MILK REPLACER:·       Contains minimum 50% spray dried skim milk powder·       Contains 10 – 15% stabilised fat and contains vitamin A,E,B12·       Antibiotic feed additives·       22 – 25 % protein and  no starchor fibre·       Dilution – 1:8 (MR kg: water litre)CALFSTARTER: First dry concentrate fed to calvesFrom 10 days of age and highly palatable75%TDN and 22% CPFEEDING:Placing small quantity in mouth/tonguePlacing small quantity in pail feeding so that it may lick CALFHOUSING:Individual pens up to 4 weeks -1 X 1.5m pen /calf                      Beddingshould be 30 cm Individual care  – Feeding,managementNaval sucking/licking can be avoidedMinimizecross infectionCALFDISEASES AND MORTALITY :Besides stillbirths, hypothermia, infectious agentssuch as calf scours, navel infection and pneumonia all contribute to themortality numbersHYPOTHERMIA:Wet and cold calves are more prone to hypothermia. Getting these calves warmedas quickly as possible is critical for survival. Warming lamps are a usefultool for drying calves, but should not be used longterm, as you risk increasedpneumonia cases by overusing a heat lamp.

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GASTROENTERITIS:Escherichia coli, Saccharolyticorganisms, Ascarisvitulorum,Coccidiaandother miscellaneous organismsMANAGEMENTMEASURES:·       Avoid overfeeding·       Feed milk or reconstituted milk at body temperature ·       Proper feeding interval and proper deworming·       Utensil hygiene and  beddingmaterial management OTHERMISCELLANEOUS FACTORS: In calf houses,poor ventilation, overcrowding, no regular cleaning and disinfection predisposevarious diseases of calves, especially of respiratory tract leading to highcalf mortality. Calves kept in pens develop arthritis, tendovaginitis orabscesses and even fractures and those develop naval joint illness had a poorsurvival rates.Mortality of calves can be reduced by rearing them on elevatedand perforated floors