Ambient become operational, the determined area and the experiment

 Ambient
temperature and humidity are important factors that affect the efficiency and effectiveness
of daily life activities. This study was conducted to examine the behaviours,
productivity and comfort of the students in our experimental group at the specified
temperature intervals.

A
microcontroller-based embedded system was used for this purpose and this system
is designed to monitor the temperature and humidity values of the environment.
The special Arduino microcontroller we use is enriched with sensors such as
DHT11 and ESP8266, and has been turned into a suitable working mechanism for
our goal.

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After
the technical installation and software operations have been completed and the
device has become operational, the determined area and the experiment group
have been tested and the results have been recorded.First
and foremost, we have to thank our project supervisor, Mr. Gökhan Kirkil.
Without his assistance and dedicated involvement in every step throughout the
project, this paper would have never been accomplished. Also, special thanks to
Mr. Orçun Kepez for his help and many precious ideas about our discussion. We
feel very lucky to had the opportunity to work with him. We also take this chance
to express gratitude to all of the Kadir Has University Engineering and Natural
Science Faculty members for their help and support in all four years.First
of all, we want to mention some basic concepts. Heat is a form of energy measurable in terms of temperature by
thermometers. In a natural environment, human body can experience extreme heats
which is in a range of arctic cold to tropical heat. And the temperature of the
environment influences the body temperature. That makes the indoor temperature very
important.Indoor temperature is one of the
fundamental characteristics of the indoor environment and ?t can be controlled
with the building and its HVAC system1.
HVAC is
the system of heating, ventilating and air conditioning.Researches
have lots of different ideas about the best indoor temperature, but they agree
that it should be in a 20 -25 ° C range. We call it the best condition because
the indoor temperature influences lots of human reactions like, thermal
comfort, perceived air quality and performance at work. In this study, we
focused on the effects of temperature on performance at our school. Latest
researches shows that extreme indoor environmental conditions can affect health
and productivity in a negative way1. So engineers are
trying to improve indoor environments and control their effects to increase
efficiency and productivity. We collect the existing information and tried to
get new test information on how temperature affects productivity and
efficiency. Because when we know more about these effects, they could be
included into cost-benefit calculations for the building design and operation.Temperature’s
effect on productivity is an important topic for researchers. There are lots of
example studies about it. In this paper, we will talk about G, NECA and
T’s original research data about temperature and productivity relationship.’Grimm and Wagner (1974)
and The National Electrical Contractors Association (NECA 1969, NECA  2004) conducted experiments to measure
productivity under different weather conditions. Thomas and Yiakoumis (1987) developed
a regression model using temperature and humidity to predict PR.’2
(Ibbs
& Sun Analysis of the MCAA Factor Model for Measuring Loss of
Productivity.)

*The
Productivity Ratio (PR) represents the ratio of actual productivity divided by
“optimal” productivity.The
plotted areas on the chart show areas where temperature and humidity affect
productivity.For
example, in Thomas and Yiakoumis’ s study, you can see the data shows there is
a   100% productivity in 50°F.

As
it seen, every research has its own peak PR’s at different temperature ranges. The
results of the experiment differ from the environment in terms of the
experiment was conducted, the equipment used, the target audience and the
experimental purpose. We have tried to reach our own values and interpret them
using our own measuring method.In
this thesis, we designed our microcontroller-based embedded system to monitor
the temperature and humidity values of our test environment. In addition to
monitoring temperature and humidity, we can learn the heat index too. Heat index is a combination of air
temperature and relative humidity3. It also called
‘humiture’. 4    2.2.1 Heath Index Heat
index is what the temperature feels like to the human body when relative
humidity is combined with the air temperature. This has important
considerations for the human body’s comfort. Here
is the equation of heath index when t representing the current air temperature
and r representing the current relative humidityWe
designed the system using Arduino Nano Microcontroller. A Microcontroller (MCU) is basically a simple computer.5
There is a difference in desktops and microcontrollers. Desktops can run lots
of programs because they have software support for different hardware
components. But microcontrollers specifically written to control one hardware
component can run one program only run one program.5 Arduino
webserver monitoring system was programmed using the C programming language.7 The sensor data is read
and processed by Arduino and it is displayed to the user through the Gobetwino
interface.We
create the embedded system in two parts. ystem
design was the theoretical part.
This part describes, the use of the Arduino microcontroller and how it is
utilized in the embedded systems in practical part. We create the design and
architecture model in this phase. This part also
includes literature
review.Practical part describes the temperature and humidity monitoring system. I this part we complete the wiring diagram, the source code and implementation and testing.o Arduino Nanoo DHT11 Temperature and Humidity Sensoro Breadboardo Power supplyo Connecting wiresWe get the measurements of the class via Arduino Nano Heat and Humidity Calculation Device which we build and encode. We use Arduino Nano, DHT11 humidity and temperature sensor to build a small circuit for measurements and ESP8266 Wi-Fi module and Gobetwino for getting the data and save them in a txt format.Some details about the components which we use;Technically, Arduino is a programmable logic controller. Officially, it’s an open-source electronics prototyping platform. 6 Basically, Arduino boards are able to read inputs (ex.  message, heath or light) and turn it into an output (ex. turning on led, activating a motor, display it in the screen). You can tell your board what to do by sending a set of instructions to the microcontroller on the board. For example, you can obtain some test results using customized Arduino components for humidity and temperature measurements, as we did in this experiment. In
this study we use Arduino Nano which is a common type of Arduino to use. The
major difference between the standard Arduino Uno and Arduino Nano is the
number of Analog Pins and the USB Port We will discuss these components later
in detail.       The
arduino advantages which described on the Arduino website are as follows13;              Inexpensive – Arduino boards are
relatively inexpensive compared to other microcontroller platforms.             Cross-platform – The Arduino
Software runs on many operating systems. It is not limited to Windows.             Simple, clear programming
environment – The Arduino has an easy-to-use software and it is flexible to
develop.             Open source and extensible
software – The Arduino software is an open source tool so programmers can add
extensions.               Open source and extensible
hardware – Circuit designers can extend and improve it to make their own
version of the module.The
Arduino Software is a user friendly programming environment: It allows the
programmer to create different programs and load them to Arduino
microcontroller. 8The software also called Arduino
IDE (Integrated Development Environment). In DHTXX series there are two types of
humidity sensors, DHT11 and DHT22. Both these sensors are Relative Humidity
(RH) Sensor. According to the Australian Bureau of Meteorology;Relative humidity (RH)The ratio of the actual amount of water vapour in the
air to the amount it could hold.Absolute humidity (AH)The mass of water vapour in a unit volume of air. 

 As a result, we can measure both the humidity
and temperature. In
our project, we used DHT11 is a Humidity and Temperature Sensor, which
generates calibrated digital output. It can be interface with Arduino and it
can get instantaneous results. DHT11 provides high reliability and long term
stability.9The
DHT11 Humidity and Temperature Sensor consists of 3 main components. A
resistive type humidity sensor, an NTC (negative temperature coefficient)
thermistor (to measure the temperature) and an 8-bit microcontroller.10 This microcontroller gets analog signals from the
sensors and converts them to a single digital signal to send out.  

You
can see the main specifications and differences between these two sensors in
table 111. The more expensive option, DHT22 has some better specifications. DHT22
has a wider temperature range. When DHT11 can measure the temperature in 0 to
50 degrees, DHT22 can measure it in -40 to 125 degrees. Also with +- 0.5 degree
accuracy, DHT22 has more reliable results than DHT11. About humidity, DHT22 has
better humidity measuring range, from 0 to 100% with 2-5% accuracy, while the
DHT11 humidity range is from 20 to 80% with 5% accuracy.

 

 There are some specifications which DHT11 is
better than DHT22. They are sampling rate and body size. Sampling rate for
DHT11 is 1Hz or one reading every second, while the DHT22 sampling rate is
0,5Hz or one reading every two seconds and also the DHT11 has smaller body
size.

These
two sensors has the same operating voltages (from 3 to 5 volts) and same max
currents (2.5mA) used when measuring.

Gobetwino
is kind of a “generic proxy” for Arduino.12
It’s a program which is running on your computer and act on behalf of Arduino
and do some of the things that Arduino can’t do on its own.12

We
use Gobetwino program for display the data we get from the humidity and
temperature measurements with Arduino. And we save them as a text file on
Gobetwino.

Before
beginning to monitoring the class, certain requirements were set. The system is
needed to be easy to use and the user could remotely monitor environmental
changes inside the class. Sensor data required to be collected and stored for
showing changes in the environment variables. We had a fixed temperature to get
reliable results.

 The
measurements accomplished by the data communications between Arduino, DHT11
Sensor Module, ESP8266 WIFI module and Gobetwino. Arduino’s Celsius scale
thermometer and percentage scale humidity meter displays the ambient
temperature and humidity through Gobetwino display and also record it as a text
file.

 We
take the measurements on 30.11.2017 and 07.12.2017, 2 weeks consecutively, in
smart class of Kadir Has University. We take two measurement tests by Arduino
each day. One is before the class when the lecture didn’t start and one is
after the lecture, while the students write their reflection papers about the
lecture and filling our survey questions.

 We
try to figure out their comfort level in the temperature we fixed by HVAC
system and their motivation in this environment. First week we fixed the
classroom temperature at 20.00 C ° and the second week we fixed it at 27.00 C
°. There were 26 people in the test group and we neglected the genders and
clothes while we commentate the results.

For
this experiment, we divided the class into eleven regions. We gave a number to
each region and recorded the results of each region separately. We ensured
students sit in the same places in the two days of experiment. At the end of
the class we asked the students to write a reflection paper about the lecture
and to answer the survey questions which we gave them before the class. We
asked them for mark where they sit in class on the graph we gave them and mark
the spot they want to sit if it is possible.

A systematic approach has been followed in measurement with the microcontroller
based system.  The results obtained from
the measurement have shown that the system performance is reliable and
accurate. This project has been completed successfully. We get our data with
Arduino and transmit them wirelessly to a processing sketch, where they are
visualized for simple analysis. So our goal of integrating all of the underlying technologies has been
met.