All Sustainable Development It recognizes the importance of the

countries are threatened by land degradation. It is noteworthy
that 46 out of 50 of SSA countries have ratified the convention on
biological diversity. Protected areas provide both local and international
benefits—especially when policies and strategies involve communities
surrounding the protected areas in managing them. For
example, seven community-based protected areas management in Uganda had
significantly lower bush burning, logging, and encroachment than nine other
protected areas without local community involvement1.


Food and Agriculture Organization

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The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is specialized
agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger2. The goal of FAO is to achieve
food security for all and make sure that people have regular access to enough high-quality food to lead active, healthy
lives. With over 194 member states, FAO works in over 130 countries worldwide
and their people believe that everyone can play a part in ending hunger.


(2008-2018) to combat land degradation and desertification

UNCCD adopted a 10-year Strategy
(2008-2018) to combat land degradation and desertification. By bringing
together at the same time countries affected in whole or in part by
desertification and land degradation, and developed countries, the UNCCD has
mobilised the necessary political will and funding3.



TerrAfrica was established in 2005 to
support and strengthen the implementation of the United Nations Convention to
Combat Desertification (UNCCD), the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture
Development Programme (CAADP) and the New Partnership for Africa’s Development
(NEPAD) Action Plan of the Environment. It endorses the principles of
country-level partnership, knowledge management and harmonized, aligned and
scaledup investment. Its mission is to create an enabling environment for
mainstreaming and financing effective, nationally driven, sustainable land
management strategies4.


The 2030 Agenda for
Sustainable Development

It recognizes the importance of the conservation and sustainable
use of terrestrial ecosystems and of reversing land degradation and achieving
Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN) by the year 2030. The objective of LDN is to
ensure that the productive land resources we depend on for ecosystem services
(water, food, rainfall, etc.) remain at least stable or are being regenerated.
Two joint actions need to be taken to make land degradation neutrality happen:
avoid further land degradation and recover already degraded land5.
The new UNCCD 2018-2030 Strategic
Framework is the most comprehensive global
commitment to achieve LDN and it is consistent with the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable


Global Alliance for Resilience Initiative

Commission launched it in 2012 to
strengthen nutrition and secure livelihoods of vulnerable households, improve
sustainable agricultural and food productivity, and build resilience of
communities to climate change and land degradation in West Africa and the Sahel


The Global Environment Facility

The Global Environment Facility
(GEF) was established on the eve of the 1992 Rio Earth Summit to help tackle
our planet’s most pressing environmental problems7.  Since then, the GEF has provided over $17
billion in grants and mobilized an additional $88 billion in financing for more than 4000 projects in 170 countries.  Today, the
GEF is an international partnership of 183 countries, international
institutions, civil society organizations and the private sector that addresses
global environmental issues.


The Global Soil

It was establishment by the FAO in 2012 and since then it is
has been strongly supported by the European Union. This partnership aims to
improve global soil governance to achieve healthy and productive soils for a
food secure world, as well as to sustain other essential ecosystem services8.


The Global Water Partnership

It was founded in 1996
with the support of the World Bank, the United Nations
Development Programme and the Swedish International
Development Cooperation Agency. It is an international network created to foster an integrated
approach to water resources management. Its vision is for a water secure world. The
network offers practical advice for sustainably managing water resources9.


The New Partnership for
Africa’s Development 

It is an economic
development program of the African
Union. It was adopted at the 37th session of the
Assembly of Heads of State and Government in July 2001 in Zambia. It aims to provide an overarching vision and policy
framework for accelerating economic co-operation and integration among African


The Southern African Development Community (SADC) Protocol on
Shared Watercourse Systems

It calls for
equity and shared responsibility among riparian states in the utilization and
management of watercourse systems. Member states are obliged to strive for a
higher standard of living for their peoples, and
conservation and enhancement of the environment to promote sustainable
development. Signed in 1992 by eight of the 12-member. The protocol revised in


The Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development

The Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme is Africa’s
policy framework for agricultural transformation, wealth creation, food
security and nutrition, economic growth and prosperity for all. In Mozambique,
in 2003, the African Union Summit made the first declaration on this program as
an integral part of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development12.


Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020

In 2010 Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity adopted the
Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020, a ten-year framework for action by
all countries and stakeholders to safeguard biodiversity and the benefits it
provides to people13.


United Nations Convention
to Combat Desertification

Established in 1994, the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)14 is the sole legally binding international agreement
linking environment and development to sustainable land management. The
Convention addresses the drylands, where some of the most vulnerable ecosystems
and peoples can be found. The Convention’s 196
parties work together to improve the living conditions for people in drylands,
to maintain and restore land and soil productivity, and to mitigate the effects
of drought. The UNCCD is committed to a bottom-up approach, encouraging the
participation of local people. Moreover, the UNCCD facilitates cooperation
between developed and developing countries, particularly around knowledge and
technology transfer.


Nations Development Programme

The United
Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the UNs’
global development network. It  advocates for change
and connects countries to knowledge, experience and resources to help people
build a better life. It provides expert advice, training and grants support to
developing countries, with emphasis on assistance to
the least developed countries. It promotes technical and investment cooperation
among nations15.


Health Organization

World Health Organization (WHO) is committed to engage
actively in the United Nations Framework on Climate
Change, with member states, and relevant partners to promote effective climate
and health policies which promote health protection16. WHO develops discussion papers, guidance documents, and
recommendations to improve health protection in international
health and climate change negotiations and agreements.