All SSAcountries are threatened by land degradation. It is noteworthythat 46 out of 50 of SSA countries have ratified the convention onbiological diversity. Protected areas provide both local and internationalbenefits—especially when policies and strategies involve communitiessurrounding the protected areas in managing them. Forexample, seven community-based protected areas management in Uganda hadsignificantly lower bush burning, logging, and encroachment than nine otherprotected areas without local community involvement1. Food and Agriculture OrganizationThe Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is specializedagency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger2.
The goal of FAO is to achievefood security for all and make sure that people have regular access to enough high-quality food to lead active, healthylives. With over 194 member states, FAO works in over 130 countries worldwideand their people believe that everyone can play a part in ending hunger. Strategy(2008-2018) to combat land degradation and desertification UNCCD adopted a 10-year Strategy(2008-2018) to combat land degradation and desertification. By bringingtogether at the same time countries affected in whole or in part bydesertification and land degradation, and developed countries, the UNCCD hasmobilised the necessary political will and funding3.
TerrAfrica TerrAfrica was established in 2005 tosupport and strengthen the implementation of the United Nations Convention toCombat Desertification (UNCCD), the Comprehensive Africa AgricultureDevelopment Programme (CAADP) and the New Partnership for Africa’s Development(NEPAD) Action Plan of the Environment. It endorses the principles ofcountry-level partnership, knowledge management and harmonized, aligned andscaledup investment. Its mission is to create an enabling environment formainstreaming and financing effective, nationally driven, sustainable landmanagement strategies4. The 2030 Agenda forSustainable DevelopmentIt recognizes the importance of the conservation and sustainableuse of terrestrial ecosystems and of reversing land degradation and achievingLand Degradation Neutrality (LDN) by the year 2030. The objective of LDN is toensure that the productive land resources we depend on for ecosystem services(water, food, rainfall, etc.) remain at least stable or are being regenerated.Two joint actions need to be taken to make land degradation neutrality happen:avoid further land degradation and recover already degraded land5.
The new UNCCD 2018-2030 StrategicFramework is the most comprehensive globalcommitment to achieve LDN and it is consistent with the 2030 Agenda for SustainableDevelopment. TheGlobal Alliance for Resilience Initiative Commission launched it in 2012 tostrengthen nutrition and secure livelihoods of vulnerable households, improvesustainable agricultural and food productivity, and build resilience ofcommunities to climate change and land degradation in West Africa and the Sahelregion6. The Global Environment Facility The Global Environment Facility(GEF) was established on the eve of the 1992 Rio Earth Summit to help tackleour planet’s most pressing environmental problems7.
Since then, the GEF has provided over $17billion in grants and mobilized an additional $88 billion in financing for more than 4000 projects in 170 countries. Today, theGEF is an international partnership of 183 countries, internationalinstitutions, civil society organizations and the private sector that addressesglobal environmental issues. The Global SoilPartnershipIt was establishment by the FAO in 2012 and since then it ishas been strongly supported by the European Union.
This partnership aims toimprove global soil governance to achieve healthy and productive soils for afood secure world, as well as to sustain other essential ecosystem services8. The Global Water PartnershipIt was founded in 1996with the support of the World Bank, the United NationsDevelopment Programme and the Swedish InternationalDevelopment Cooperation Agency. It is an international network created to foster an integratedapproach to water resources management. Its vision is for a water secure world. Thenetwork offers practical advice for sustainably managing water resources9.
The New Partnership forAfrica’s Development It is an economicdevelopment program of the AfricanUnion. It was adopted at the 37th session of theAssembly of Heads of State and Government in July 2001 in Zambia. It aims to provide an overarching vision and policyframework for accelerating economic co-operation and integration among Africancountries10. The Southern African Development Community (SADC) Protocol onShared Watercourse SystemsIt calls forequity and shared responsibility among riparian states in the utilization andmanagement of watercourse systems.
Member states are obliged to strive for ahigher standard of living for their peoples, andconservation and enhancement of the environment to promote sustainabledevelopment. Signed in 1992 by eight of the 12-member. The protocol revised in200011. The Comprehensive Africa Agriculture DevelopmentProgramme The Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme is Africa’spolicy framework for agricultural transformation, wealth creation, foodsecurity and nutrition, economic growth and prosperity for all.
In Mozambique,in 2003, the African Union Summit made the first declaration on this program asan integral part of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development12. TheStrategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020 In 2010 Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity adopted theStrategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020, a ten-year framework for action byall countries and stakeholders to safeguard biodiversity and the benefits itprovides to people13. United Nations Conventionto Combat DesertificationEstablished in 1994, the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)14 is the sole legally binding international agreementlinking environment and development to sustainable land management. TheConvention addresses the drylands, where some of the most vulnerable ecosystemsand peoples can be found.
The Convention’s 196parties work together to improve the living conditions for people in drylands,to maintain and restore land and soil productivity, and to mitigate the effectsof drought. The UNCCD is committed to a bottom-up approach, encouraging theparticipation of local people. Moreover, the UNCCD facilitates cooperationbetween developed and developing countries, particularly around knowledge andtechnology transfer. UnitedNations Development Programme The UnitedNations Development Programme (UNDP) is the UNs’global development network. It advocates for changeand connects countries to knowledge, experience and resources to help peoplebuild a better life. It provides expert advice, training and grants support todeveloping countries, with emphasis on assistance tothe least developed countries.
It promotes technical and investment cooperationamong nations15. WorldHealth Organization World Health Organization (WHO) is committed to engageactively in the United Nations Framework on ClimateChange, with member states, and relevant partners to promote effective climateand health policies which promote health protection16. WHO develops discussion papers, guidance documents, andrecommendations to improve health protection in internationalhealth and climate change negotiations and agreements.