. advance design of nuclear reactors is more efficient

.

The
construction of nuclear power plants for supplying Indonesia’s energy demand has
been widely debated in recent years. Indonesia needs to fulfil about 450
billion kWh in 2026 and 26 % declining in CO2 emissions by 2020 which targeted
from new and renewable resources (World Nuclear Associaton, 2017) . This essay will
argue that nuclear power should be the last option for Indonesia. This is because
nuclear power is expensive, unsafe and environmentally damaged.

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Bishop
(2006) believes that the new advance design of nuclear reactors is more
efficient and affordable compared to gas-fired electricity generation. She
explains that the new reactors which constructed in France were more
competitive based on gas prices. In addition, Moniz (2011) argues that nuclear
power needs a low budget for operations, maintenance and fuel which are two
cents per kilowatt-hour. However, nuclear power is expensive, in particularly
for the first construction compared to fossil fuels. It is also required a long
time for constructing before producing electricity. The National Atomic Energy
Agency (BATAN) proposal of nuclear power plant shows that Indonesia needs to
spend US$ 1.5 – 1.8 billion each reactor and require 5 years for constructing (Tanter, Imhoff, & Hippel, 2009, p. 15). Thus, Indonesia is
not well-prepared for constructing nuclear power based on financial aspect.

According
to Bishop (2006), nuclear power is the safest power energy supply. He supports
data from expert comparative studies that nuclear power is 10 times safer than
hydro-electricity. He also claims that the new design of nuclear reactors will
become more safety which provides automatically detection to avoid worse
accident. However, nuclear power caused many catastrophe accidents in the
world, such as Three Miles Island (1979) in the US, Chernobyl (1986) in Ukraine
and Fukushima (2011) in Japan. Furthermore, nuclear power is considered to be
dangerous for Indonesia’s geographical position. Indonesia is located in the
pacific ring of fire and almost Indonesian districts are categorized in
earthquake zone. This situation due to a high risk of seismic and flood hazard (Butaru, n. d.).

World
Nuclear Association (2011) claims that nuclear power contributes to reduce
greenhouse gas emissions. They argue that nuclear reactors produce small amount
of CO2 compared to generating electricity from fossil fuels. Nuclear power, in
fact, produces 73 million tonnes CO2 from generating 2518 TWh electricity (World Nuclear Associaton, 2011). In addition, Bishop
(2006) states that nuclear power is environmentally friendly because it does
not create the contents of CO2, such as methane, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen
dioxide emissions which is produce by coal-fired. However, nuclear power has
negative impacts on the environment. Despite reducing greenhouse gasses,
nuclear power also creates carbon emissions from mining, milling and enrichment
of the uranium (White, 2005). Moreover, nuclear
power produces a lot of radioactive waste. In fact, annually 12,000 tonnes of
high level waste and 130,000 m3 intermediate level waste were produced by 438
nuclear reactors around the world (Karamoskos, 2010, p. 46). The nuclear power
waste management, indeed, is anxiety. It is because the burial of radioactive
waste does not guarantee on free groundwater pollution (Abbot, 2011).
Therefore, nuclear power creates more problems than solutions in terms of
environmental issue.

In conclusion, nuclear power has been explained
to be unnecessary for Indonesia, regarding to requiring a huge of money, consequences
of accidents and environmentally damaged. Renewable energy is a better solution
for Indonesia to increase energy supply as well as to reduce CO2 emissions than
construct controversies nuclear power. According to Presidential Regulation,
Indonesian government concerned to improving renewable energy resources to 23 %
by 2025 (as cited in Prakoso, 2015, para. 5).