. advance design of nuclear reactors is more efficient

.Theconstruction of nuclear power plants for supplying Indonesia’s energy demand hasbeen widely debated in recent years. Indonesia needs to fulfil about 450billion kWh in 2026 and 26 % declining in CO2 emissions by 2020 which targetedfrom new and renewable resources (World Nuclear Associaton, 2017) . This essay willargue that nuclear power should be the last option for Indonesia.

This is becausenuclear power is expensive, unsafe and environmentally damaged. Bishop(2006) believes that the new advance design of nuclear reactors is moreefficient and affordable compared to gas-fired electricity generation. Sheexplains that the new reactors which constructed in France were morecompetitive based on gas prices. In addition, Moniz (2011) argues that nuclearpower needs a low budget for operations, maintenance and fuel which are twocents per kilowatt-hour. However, nuclear power is expensive, in particularlyfor the first construction compared to fossil fuels.

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It is also required a longtime for constructing before producing electricity. The National Atomic EnergyAgency (BATAN) proposal of nuclear power plant shows that Indonesia needs tospend US$ 1.5 – 1.8 billion each reactor and require 5 years for constructing (Tanter, Imhoff, & Hippel, 2009, p. 15). Thus, Indonesia isnot well-prepared for constructing nuclear power based on financial aspect.Accordingto Bishop (2006), nuclear power is the safest power energy supply. He supportsdata from expert comparative studies that nuclear power is 10 times safer thanhydro-electricity.

He also claims that the new design of nuclear reactors willbecome more safety which provides automatically detection to avoid worseaccident. However, nuclear power caused many catastrophe accidents in theworld, such as Three Miles Island (1979) in the US, Chernobyl (1986) in Ukraineand Fukushima (2011) in Japan. Furthermore, nuclear power is considered to bedangerous for Indonesia’s geographical position. Indonesia is located in thepacific ring of fire and almost Indonesian districts are categorized inearthquake zone. This situation due to a high risk of seismic and flood hazard (Butaru, n. d.

).WorldNuclear Association (2011) claims that nuclear power contributes to reducegreenhouse gas emissions. They argue that nuclear reactors produce small amountof CO2 compared to generating electricity from fossil fuels. Nuclear power, infact, produces 73 million tonnes CO2 from generating 2518 TWh electricity (World Nuclear Associaton, 2011). In addition, Bishop(2006) states that nuclear power is environmentally friendly because it doesnot create the contents of CO2, such as methane, sulphur dioxide and nitrogendioxide emissions which is produce by coal-fired. However, nuclear power hasnegative impacts on the environment. Despite reducing greenhouse gasses,nuclear power also creates carbon emissions from mining, milling and enrichmentof the uranium (White, 2005).

Moreover, nuclearpower produces a lot of radioactive waste. In fact, annually 12,000 tonnes ofhigh level waste and 130,000 m3 intermediate level waste were produced by 438nuclear reactors around the world (Karamoskos, 2010, p. 46).

The nuclear powerwaste management, indeed, is anxiety. It is because the burial of radioactivewaste does not guarantee on free groundwater pollution (Abbot, 2011).Therefore, nuclear power creates more problems than solutions in terms ofenvironmental issue. In conclusion, nuclear power has been explainedto be unnecessary for Indonesia, regarding to requiring a huge of money, consequencesof accidents and environmentally damaged. Renewable energy is a better solutionfor Indonesia to increase energy supply as well as to reduce CO2 emissions thanconstruct controversies nuclear power.

According to Presidential Regulation,Indonesian government concerned to improving renewable energy resources to 23 %by 2025 (as cited in Prakoso, 2015, para. 5).