According shortage is one of the problems which require

According
to Wonduante(2007), sustainable provision of adequate and safe drinking water
is the most important of all public services. It is one of the essential
necessities of life next to oxygen. Anything that disturbs the sustainable
provision and supply of water therefore, tends to disturb  the very survival of humanity. Water is the
very basis for sustenance of life. The importance of water is not only attached
to the drinking but also to cooking, bathing, washing and other activities.
Where provisions for water and sanitation are inadequate, the diseases that
arise from contaminated water, food and hands are among the world’s leading
causes of premature death and serious illness (Yewondossen (2012). There are
serious constraints to meeting  the
challenge to provide adequate water for all urban dwellers. Water supply
shortage is one of the problems which require greater attention and action.
Various strategies are always being developed to make water accessible to all
inhabitants. However, due to insufficient infrastructures coupled with rapid
population growth and urbanization, the gap between demand and supply of water
continues to widen in most of
developing countries..

 

According
to the report of CO-water international (2008) in Africa, the  water sector is vulnerable to corruption for
several reasons. the existence of numerous agencies, actors and government
institutions in a single sector blurs lines of accountability and reduce
transparency; the water sector involves the procurement of significant
qualities of goods with large volumes of public money; informal service
providers less subject to official oversight mechanisms play a key role in
service delivery and the widespread presence of monopolies promotes unfair or
discretionary business practices. Besides, informal providers, often vulnerable
to corruption, also play a key role in service delivery. Lui(1985) indicated
that the sector is characterized by wide spread financial disorder, few service
providers are accountable to their customers and financial management is not transparent. Among the many challenges
facing public service institutions in developing countries, corruption remains
one of the most pervasive and the least confronted. Historically, donor
agencies and their clients accepted the inevitability of corruption in public
service delivery; it was at worst a necessary evil and at best the ‘grease”
essential to move the wheels of economic development. For the past three
decades a substantial number of governments, donors and NGOs have focused
efforts on a range of institutional, financial, technical and social
interventions aimed at bringing about much-needed improvements in the delivery
of water and sanitation services in rural and urban areas in

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

 

developing
countries. Recognizing the impacts of low levels of access for the poor,
approaches have become increasingly targeted and service-oriented: responding
to demand from users, identifying entry points with clients, reacting to
signals in a developing water and sanitation market, and of course steering
this course with the flow of donor funding. In more recent years, according to
Plummer(2006), governments have embarked upon a process of establishing road
maps (action plans) that plot the long paths of 
sector reform  and service
improvement  needed  to 
meet the Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs). In a number of well-performing states, it looks like
steady progress is being made.

 

Pathak,
et al.(2008) asserted that key drivers of corruption in Ethiopia water and
sanitation sector are poor governance, lack 
of accountability and transparency, low levels of democratic culture and
traditions, lack  of citizen
participation, lack of clear regulations and authorization, low level of
institutional control extreme poverty
and inequity and centralization of authorities and resources etc .

Desalegn
R.(1999) identified that Ethiopia has been trying to supply potable water to
its population, without great success, for more than a century, while water for
agricultural use has attracted high levels of investment, water resource
management for domestic supply has been relatively neglected, especially before
the post imperial period, even today, rural water supply programs, which affect
the majority at the country’s population have not been given sufficient
attention.

 

RIPPLE(2008)
concluded that Ethiopia is committed through its universal access plan (UAP) to
reaching full covering in WASH service by 2012.this will be achieved in parallel
with and based up on a process decentralization of a range of a state provided
services, a decentralization  process
based in part up on its federal nature, and in part a desire to make service
delivery more equitable, efficient and effective. The twin pressure of
decentralization and the ambitions targets at UAP are resulting in arrange at
pressing challenge for stakeholders at all levels and scale-form the region
down to the local level. Modern
water development schemes are relatively recent phenomenon in Ethiopia. The
imperial government took the first initiatives in water resource development in
the second half of the 1950. Large scale water projects for agriculture purpose
and power generation

constructed
in the Awash valley as part of the agro industrial enterprises that were
expanding in that area .these developments subsequently spread to the rift
valley and the Wabe Shebelle basin.

The
other issue inviting attention in water supply and sanitation sector in
Ethiopia in general and the case area Aletawondo town in particular is
characterized by service deficiency of

physical
infrastructure as well as by inadequate management capacity to handle policy
and

 

regulatory
issues and to plan, operate and maintain the service. Inadequate production,
together with inequitable distribution system and low quality of water
influence the well- being of people in particular and the socio-economic
condition of urban areas in general.