Abstract—This paper is an information about Knowledge Management. It focuses on the effective methods to motivate employees to share their Knowledge. This paper also discovers the barrier to share the knowledge. Based on the study, it can be concluded that the implementation of effective methods of sharing knowledge can increase the organizational performance. Keywords: Knowledge, Knowledge Management, Knowledge Barriers, Knowledge Sharing 1.0 Introduction As organizations increasingly become aware of knowledge as a key strategic asset, they are being forced to revise their strategy on how to effectively utilize that asset to not only achieve competitive advantage but maintain it as well. Previous researchers have provided many reasons for failure to implement knowledge management properly. No serious attempt has been made to integrate all the success factors proposed by the knowledge management researchers in the past.
This study focuses on the integrative effect of processes, intellectual capital, culture and strategy with management which affect organizational performance. A sharing culture should be developed, to create knowledge sharing environment. The strategy should be developed with the active participation of the middle management and their input should be given importance. This study fills that gap and presents a conceptual framework model of a process, intellectual capital, culture and strategy (PICS) for successful implementation of knowledge management. The effective utilization of knowledge will not only create competitive advantage but maintains it as well, that would improve organizational performance.
2.0 Definition of Knowledge Management Knowledge Management was initially defined as the process of applying an effective approach to the capture, organizing, management, and spread of knowledge throughout an organization to work faster, reuse best practices, and diminish expensive rework from project to project (Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995; Pasternack and Viscio 1998; Pfeffer and Sutton, 1999; Ruggles and Holtshouse, 1999). Based on the previous research on knowledge management in the past decade, Davenport and Prusak (1998) have stated that knowledge management has generated an important essence of knowledge in terms of both practitioners and academicians. Besides, Davenport, Javenpaa, and Beers (1996), Drucker (1999), Claycomb, Droge and Germain (2001), Liao and Chuang (2006), Staples, Greenway and Mckeen (2001) had stated that knowledge management has been viewed as being critical for the smooth and successful operation of organizations. According to Talet (2012) and Nonaka (1991), the evolution of knowledge management concept and practices was established in 1991. in addition, Peter Drucker, Paul Strassman, Ikujiro Nonaka and Peter Senge were some of the management ‘gurus’ who have contributed to the evolution of knowledge management (Raja Abdullah Yaacob et al.
, 2010). later, it became an emerging discipline in the end of the 1990s due to companies’ requirements to manage their knowledge resources more effectively (Akhavan & Heidari, 2008; Minna & Aino, 2005; Ma & Yu, 2010; Raja Abdullah et al., 2010). The benefits of implementing knowledge management include minimizing potential losses on intellectual capital from employees leaving the organization, improving job performance by enabling all employees to easily retrieve knowledge when require, increasing employee satisfaction by obtaining knowledge from others and gaining from reward system, providing better products and services and making better decisions as stated by Parbly (1998). 3.0 Knowledge Barriers.
A crucial part of knowledge management is to spread and make information accessible and usable within or between chosen organizations. When checking on knowledge management writing, there are a few terms that appear more central and fundamental than others. For example, in the view of knowledge-based firm creation, coordination, exchange, and integration of information make competitive preferences for firms (Ghosal & Moran, 1996) Szulanski (2003) recommends a definition of knowledge obstructions and describes them as a set of variables which affect on a knowledge transfer. There are a lot of categories of barriers, such as organizational, technology, individual and culture categories. Herrmann (2011) claims that the barrier in technology means that a company sometimes does not have a hardware technology to use a software or it costs too much the company expected to spend. He (2011) proposes utilizing basic technology tools and trying to make a configuration of a program in a valuable way. In this case, a company does not need to spend a cost to purchase a new technology.
For some people, it might be very difficult to deliver a content in an original meaning and make it understandable for other employees. It could depend on personal abilities or employees should have experiences to work with a diverse computer program. For instance, it could be difficult for a company to content knowledge, as some procedure could be illegal or don’t meet policy requirements of a company. For barrier in routines and procedures in an organization, some procedures could not be recognized by employees as it happened every day. Herrmann (2011) thinks that some procedures are only written on a paper and “have no link to reality” (Herrmann, 2011, p.5).
To avoid this problem, organizations should have a list of steps, which should be done, have a meeting schedule or a working plan. In this case for employees, it would be easier to work and follow a strategy of an organization. Figure 1: Knowledge of Action Process 4.0 Effective Methods to Share Knowledge According to Ryu, Ho and Han (2003) knowledge sharing is a people-to-people process to exchange knowledge. For an organization, it is very important to have employees, who are willing to share knowledge and are motivated to do this. People make a decision whether to share or not share knowledge based on their feeling, if they know a receiver or not (Dignum and van Eijk, 2005). A level of knowledge sharing is higher if participants have a trusting relationship with a receiver.
If a person knows a partner, with whom she or he is going to share knowledge than this person will make a knowledge sharing decision based on previous experiences. As stated by Lockard (2017), provide a knowledge sharing platform can increase the motivation of employees to share knowledge. People are more likely to contribute if there is a place or forum where people can share information easily. The forum could be internal or external. Some people will be encouraged to share ideas internally like posting a file to an FTP or sharing a thought in a debrief meeting. Others might like the challenge of writing for a public facing channel like a blog or social post.
She also added that reward the employees can also boost up the motivation. From a congratulatory email to a prize for free lunch, a little reward can go a long way. Eventually, people will take pride in their work. The ownership of original content and new ideas will be satisfaction enough. Rossi (2015) claimed that embrace the desire to socialize can improve the sharing knowledge method. Humans are social creatures.
Employees have a normal tendency to socialize, and this does not have to be treated as slacking off or a distraction. Empowering employees to form connections encourages knowledge sharing because it is through these interactions that employees get to know each other. Socialising improves their awareness of each others’ strengths and weakness. They will know who to go to with particular inquiries and feel more comfortable reaching out, which helps them act quicker and make better decisions.
5.0 Conclusion This paper discusses the concept of knowledge management, knowledge barriers and the effective methods to motivate employees to share knowledge that can contribute to the improvement of organizational performance. This knowledge can be used by organizations as they seek to lead the market with well-designed products and services and as a result, can increase the organization profits. In this global economy, to remain competitive, companies have to know, coordinate and use what they know, regardless of the size of the company. The implementation of effective knowledge sharing can improve the reputation in the business marketplace. This conceptual study shows the possibilities and the potential of knowledge sharing in enhancing organizational performance.
This is because knowledge sharing concerned about the strategies to improve sharing method that is used by the employees. 6.0 References Nonaka, I. & Takeuchi, H. (1995).
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