ABSTRACT take millions of years. It is roughly estimated

ABSTRACT

This paper aims at
finding out the willingness and the ability of the automobile industry as well
as the customers to switch over to other alternative fuels like Ethanol,
Propane, H2, etc., from the conventional fuels majorly petrol and diesel. As we
are aware that with improved medical facilities and technology, population is
blooming at an alarming rate and so in turn is the pollution because with rise
in population there’s a rise in the demand and the desires as well, which in
turn is polluting the mother Earth. But, with the heavy usage rate of these
heavy rare earth elements for running the vehicles, the depletion rate of coals
and petroleum ores are very high and their replenishment will take millions of
years. It is roughly estimated that in next 53 years oil will run out, while natural
gas in 54 years and coal in 110 years. Our study mainly focuses on the
perception of the manufacturers as well as the consumers, who would most likely
to switch to eco-friendly fuels for their vehicles or not.

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INTRODUCTION

1.1  Purpose
The objective of this
report is to examine if the consumer is willing to switch to environment
friendly alternative resources for their automobile vehicles away from the conventional
energy sources like petrol and diesel which dominate the market today. The
report aims to find if the consumer is willing to use alternative resources for
their automobile vehicles like Electricity, Propane, Natural gas, Bio-diesel,
Hydrogen etc., It also aims to find and investigate the consumer perception
regarding alternative sustainable fuels and to check if the market is ready to
switch to sustainable resources, this information is very useful for the
manufacturers who want to calculate the risk of diving into a new market. The
report gives insights about the current consumer perception regarding
alternative sustainable resources and recommend which alternative sustainable
resources are most preferred by the consumers.

 

1.2  Background

 

An overwhelming 90 per cent of the global population are
breathing poor quality air, from which nine out of ten people are
globally breathing poor quality air, the World Health Organization (WHO) says.

In a staggering report, calling for effective action against
pollution, pollution is blamed for killing more than six million people
worldwide, every year. New data in a report from the UN’s global health body
‘is enough to make all of us extremely concerned’ says the head of the WHO’s
department of public health and environment.

According to WHO report the problem is most acute in cities,
but air in rural areas is worse than many thinks. Underdeveloped and less
developed countries have much contaminated air than the developed world, but
pollution affects virtually all countries in the world and all parts of society,

Nearly most of the world live in areas that don’t meet
federal air quality standards.

Passenger vehicles and
heavy-duty trucks are among of the main originators of this pollution, which
includes ozone, particulate matter, and other smog-forming emissions.

The health risks of these air pollution are extremely
serious. Poor air quality increases respiratory ailments like asthma and
bronchitis, heightens the risk of life-threatening conditions like cancer, and
burdens our health care system with substantial medical costs. Particulate
matter is singlehandedly responsible for up to 30,000 premature deaths each
year. Passenger vehicles which use petrol and diesel are a major pollution
contributor, producing significant amounts of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide,
and other pollution. In 2013, transportation contributed more than half of the
carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides, and almost a quarter of the hydrocarbons
emitted into our air.

 

1.3  Method of Investigation
A Questionnaire was floated for
the collection of data, we floated questionnaire’s in form of google forms and
we also used the means of Email to send around copies of the said
questionnaires. To get a in depth knowledge from different demographics the
questionnaire was also circulated amongst industry professionals so that the
data would better represent the actual situation rather than a one-sided angle
approach.

 

1.4  Scope

The respondent’s profiles were 75% male and 25% female with
most of the respondents being under 25 (90%). Most of the respondents were
undergraduates (71%) and were students at the time (83%). Besides these
profiles, this report looks into what are the most influential characters which
play a major role in changing or deciding if the consumer is willing to switch
to alternative resources for their automobiles

Literature Review

 

In 2013, The transportation
sector contributed more than half of the carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides
percent, and almost a quarter of the hydrocarbons emitted into our air. This
air pollution carries consequential risks for human health and the environment.
Through immaculate vehicle and fuel scientific know how, we can significantly abate
air pollution from our cars and trucks, while cutting projected oil use in half
within the next 20 years. Clean vehicle and fuel scientific know how provide us
with a sustained, available means of lowering transportation-related air
pollution and climate change emissions. These include fuel-efficient vehicles
that use less oil; cleaner fuels that produce fewer emissions; and electric
cars and trucks that can completely cut out tailpipe emissions.

 

Cars and trucks produce air
pollution throughout their life, including pollution emitted during vehicle
operation, refueling, manufacturing, and disposal. Further emissions are affiliated
with the refining and distribution of vehicle fuel. Air pollution from cars and
trucks are further classified into primary and secondary pollution. Primary
pollution is emitted directly into the atmosphere; secondary pollution results
from chemical reactions amidst pollutants in the atmosphere. The following are
the major pollutants emitted from motor vehicles:

Particulate matter (PM),
Hydrocarbons (HC), Nitrogen oxides (NOx), Carbon monoxide (CO), Sulfur dioxide
(SO2), Hazardous air pollutants (toxics) and Greenhouse gases

Electric cars, propane vehicles, natural gas-powered buses, trucks
that run on biodiesel, today have vast options for alternative fuel vehicles.
With the Increased use of alternative fuels in vehicles, it will help in reducing
consumers’ fuel costs, while pollution will be minimized, and nation’s energy
security will ultimately increase.

Universities, private-sector companies, National
Labs and the Energy Department support programmes are
carrying out research and developing methodologies for the development of alternative
fuels such that the vehicle technologies provide consumers with cost-effective
vehicle choices. The various alternative fuels found are as follows:

2.1 Ethanol.

Ethanol,
which is a renewable fuel and is produced from corn and other assortments of
feedstock. It has a widespread use, over 97% of the gasoline in the U.S. consists
of some amount of ethanol. One of the most familiar blend of ethanol is E10
(10% ethanol and 90% gasoline). It is also accessible as E85 (or flex fuel), which is a
further higher-level ethanol blend consisting of 51%-83% ethanol and depends
upon season and geography—for usage in flexible fuel vehicles. Ethanol helps in the conservation of petroleum and
reducing emissions.

2.2
Propane

Propane
as a substitutive transportation fuel arises from its availability in domestic
purposes, having high-energy density and clean-burning qualities, and is
relatively lower in cost. It is the third most accepted transportation fuel in
the world and is considered as an alternative fuel under the 1992 Energy policy Act.

Propane
that is used in vehicles is stipulated as HD-5 propane which is a blend of
propane with smaller quantity of supplementary gases. According to the GPA(Gas
Processors Association’s) HD-5 specification for propane, the quantity of
propane should be at least 90%, while quantity of propylene should not be more
than 5%, and quantity of other gases, primarily butane and butylene, cannot be
higher than 5%, (See fuel
properties.)

2.3 Biodiesel

Biodiesel
is a widely used diesel, which is domestically produced and considered as a
renewable fuel because it can be manufactured from vegetable oils, animal fats,
or recycled restaurant grease and can be used in diesel vehicles. The physical characteristics
of Biodiesel are akin to those of petroleum diesel, but Biodiesel is a
cleaner-burning fuel. Biodiesel causes minimum disturbance than petroleum
diesel if shed or released into the environment. It is safer to use Biodiesel
than petroleum diesel because it has shortened combustible properties, also the
flashpoint for biodiesel is greater than 130°C, which when correlated with
petroleum diesel is about 52°C. Biodiesel is safe to handle and easy to store
and transport.

2.4 Electricity

Electricity can be used to power all the-electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. These vehicles draw electricity precisely
from the grid and other off-board electrical power sources and store it in the
batteries. Hybrid electric vehicles, which are fueled with liquid
fuels, like gasoline, but primarily use electricity to increase their fuel
efficiency. Adopting electricity to power vehicles will have better significant
energy security and reduce pollutant emissions in the environment.

2.5 Hydrogen

Hydrogen, under the Energy Policy Act of 1992, is considered as an alternative fuel.
Hydrogen as an alternative transportation fuel, which stems from its capability
to power fuel cells in zero-emission electric vehicles, its potential for
domestic production, its fast filling time, and the fuel cell’s high
efficiency. In fact, a fuel cell when conjoined with an electric motor turns
out to be two to three times more productive than an internal combustion engine
running on gasoline. Hydrogen also serves as a fuel for internal combustion engines.
However, unlike FCEVs, Hydrogen produces tailpipe emissions and are less potent.

The amount of energy which is present
in 2.2 pounds (1 kilogram) of hydrogen gas is about the same as the energy
which is present in 1 gallon (6.2 pounds, 2.8 kilograms) of gasoline. Since,
hydrogen has a low volumetric energy density, hence it is stored on-board a
vehicle as a compressed gas in order to achieve the driving range of
conventional vehicles. Most current applications use high-pressure tanks which
are capable of storing hydrogen at either 5,000 or 10,000 psi. Retail
dispensers are capable of filling these tanks in about 5 minutes.

2.6 Natural Gas

Natural
gas, is a fossil fuel which is composed of mostly methane and is one of the
cleanest burning alternative fuels. It can be found in the form of compressed
natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG) to fuel cars and trucks.

About
96% of natural gas used in U.S. is domestically produced
Roughly
20% to 45% less smog-generating pollutants are found
About
5% to 9% lesser greenhouse gas emissions are produced

Less expensive than gasoline

 

 

 

3.  
Research Methods and Procedures

For the collection of data, we floated
questionnaires in form of google forms and we also used the means of Email to
send around copies of the questionnaires

3.1  Survey

A survey was conducted in the from online questionnaire
which was floated with the help of goggle form to collect primary data. The
said questionnaire was also distributed through other channels such as emails
to people with different and special demographics such as industry experts on
the subject.

 

3.2  Scale

A five point Linkert scale was used from 1 to 5 to measure
the agreeableness of the population where one stands for strongly agree and
five stands for strongly disagree. Linkert scale offers information to each
number in the scale so that the customer knows correctly what they are
selecting.
For the demographics question single choice scale was utilized where the
respondents tick the alternative that fit.

 

3.3  Sample

The method used was simple random sampling method where the
probability of selecting any person is the same for all and each individual who
is the part of the population has an equal chance to get selected in the
sample.