ABSTRACTThis paper aims atfinding out the willingness and the ability of the automobile industry as wellas the customers to switch over to other alternative fuels like Ethanol,Propane, H2, etc., from the conventional fuels majorly petrol and diesel. As weare aware that with improved medical facilities and technology, population isblooming at an alarming rate and so in turn is the pollution because with risein population there’s a rise in the demand and the desires as well, which inturn is polluting the mother Earth. But, with the heavy usage rate of theseheavy rare earth elements for running the vehicles, the depletion rate of coalsand petroleum ores are very high and their replenishment will take millions ofyears.
It is roughly estimated that in next 53 years oil will run out, while naturalgas in 54 years and coal in 110 years. Our study mainly focuses on theperception of the manufacturers as well as the consumers, who would most likelyto switch to eco-friendly fuels for their vehicles or not. INTRODUCTION1.
1 PurposeThe objective of thisreport is to examine if the consumer is willing to switch to environmentfriendly alternative resources for their automobile vehicles away from the conventionalenergy sources like petrol and diesel which dominate the market today. Thereport aims to find if the consumer is willing to use alternative resources fortheir automobile vehicles like Electricity, Propane, Natural gas, Bio-diesel,Hydrogen etc., It also aims to find and investigate the consumer perceptionregarding alternative sustainable fuels and to check if the market is ready toswitch to sustainable resources, this information is very useful for themanufacturers who want to calculate the risk of diving into a new market. Thereport gives insights about the current consumer perception regardingalternative sustainable resources and recommend which alternative sustainableresources are most preferred by the consumers. 1.
2 Background An overwhelming 90 per cent of the global population arebreathing poor quality air, from which nine out of ten people areglobally breathing poor quality air, the World Health Organization (WHO) says.In a staggering report, calling for effective action againstpollution, pollution is blamed for killing more than six million peopleworldwide, every year. New data in a report from the UN’s global health body’is enough to make all of us extremely concerned’ says the head of the WHO’sdepartment of public health and environment.According to WHO report the problem is most acute in cities,but air in rural areas is worse than many thinks. Underdeveloped and lessdeveloped countries have much contaminated air than the developed world, butpollution affects virtually all countries in the world and all parts of society,Nearly most of the world live in areas that don’t meetfederal air quality standards.
Passenger vehicles andheavy-duty trucks are among of the main originators of this pollution, whichincludes ozone, particulate matter, and other smog-forming emissions.The health risks of these air pollution are extremelyserious. Poor air quality increases respiratory ailments like asthma andbronchitis, heightens the risk of life-threatening conditions like cancer, andburdens our health care system with substantial medical costs. Particulatematter is singlehandedly responsible for up to 30,000 premature deaths eachyear. Passenger vehicles which use petrol and diesel are a major pollutioncontributor, producing significant amounts of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide,and other pollution. In 2013, transportation contributed more than half of thecarbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides, and almost a quarter of the hydrocarbonsemitted into our air. 1.
3 Method of Investigation A Questionnaire was floated forthe collection of data, we floated questionnaire’s in form of google forms andwe also used the means of Email to send around copies of the saidquestionnaires. To get a in depth knowledge from different demographics thequestionnaire was also circulated amongst industry professionals so that thedata would better represent the actual situation rather than a one-sided angleapproach. 1.4 ScopeThe respondent’s profiles were 75% male and 25% female withmost of the respondents being under 25 (90%). Most of the respondents wereundergraduates (71%) and were students at the time (83%).
Besides theseprofiles, this report looks into what are the most influential characters whichplay a major role in changing or deciding if the consumer is willing to switchto alternative resources for their automobiles Literature Review In 2013, The transportationsector contributed more than half of the carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxidespercent, and almost a quarter of the hydrocarbons emitted into our air. Thisair pollution carries consequential risks for human health and the environment.Through immaculate vehicle and fuel scientific know how, we can significantly abateair pollution from our cars and trucks, while cutting projected oil use in halfwithin the next 20 years.
Clean vehicle and fuel scientific know how provide uswith a sustained, available means of lowering transportation-related airpollution and climate change emissions. These include fuel-efficient vehiclesthat use less oil; cleaner fuels that produce fewer emissions; and electriccars and trucks that can completely cut out tailpipe emissions. Cars and trucks produce airpollution throughout their life, including pollution emitted during vehicleoperation, refueling, manufacturing, and disposal. Further emissions are affiliatedwith the refining and distribution of vehicle fuel. Air pollution from cars andtrucks are further classified into primary and secondary pollution. Primarypollution is emitted directly into the atmosphere; secondary pollution resultsfrom chemical reactions amidst pollutants in the atmosphere. The following arethe major pollutants emitted from motor vehicles:Particulate matter (PM),Hydrocarbons (HC), Nitrogen oxides (NOx), Carbon monoxide (CO), Sulfur dioxide(SO2), Hazardous air pollutants (toxics) and Greenhouse gasesElectric cars, propane vehicles, natural gas-powered buses, trucksthat run on biodiesel, today have vast options for alternative fuel vehicles.
With the Increased use of alternative fuels in vehicles, it will help in reducingconsumers’ fuel costs, while pollution will be minimized, and nation’s energysecurity will ultimately increase.Universities, private-sector companies, NationalLabs and the Energy Department support programmes arecarrying out research and developing methodologies for the development of alternativefuels such that the vehicle technologies provide consumers with cost-effectivevehicle choices. The various alternative fuels found are as follows:2.1 Ethanol.Ethanol,which is a renewable fuel and is produced from corn and other assortments offeedstock. It has a widespread use, over 97% of the gasoline in the U.S.
consistsof some amount of ethanol. One of the most familiar blend of ethanol is E10(10% ethanol and 90% gasoline). It is also accessible as E85 (or flex fuel), which is afurther higher-level ethanol blend consisting of 51%-83% ethanol and dependsupon season and geography—for usage in flexible fuel vehicles. Ethanol helps in the conservation of petroleum andreducing emissions.
2.2PropanePropaneas a substitutive transportation fuel arises from its availability in domesticpurposes, having high-energy density and clean-burning qualities, and isrelatively lower in cost. It is the third most accepted transportation fuel inthe world and is considered as an alternative fuel under the 1992 Energy policy Act.Propanethat is used in vehicles is stipulated as HD-5 propane which is a blend ofpropane with smaller quantity of supplementary gases.
According to the GPA(GasProcessors Association’s) HD-5 specification for propane, the quantity ofpropane should be at least 90%, while quantity of propylene should not be morethan 5%, and quantity of other gases, primarily butane and butylene, cannot behigher than 5%, (See fuelproperties.)2.3 BiodieselBiodieselis a widely used diesel, which is domestically produced and considered as arenewable fuel because it can be manufactured from vegetable oils, animal fats,or recycled restaurant grease and can be used in diesel vehicles.
The physical characteristicsof Biodiesel are akin to those of petroleum diesel, but Biodiesel is acleaner-burning fuel. Biodiesel causes minimum disturbance than petroleumdiesel if shed or released into the environment. It is safer to use Biodieselthan petroleum diesel because it has shortened combustible properties, also theflashpoint for biodiesel is greater than 130°C, which when correlated withpetroleum diesel is about 52°C. Biodiesel is safe to handle and easy to storeand transport.
2.4 ElectricityElectricity can be used to power all the-electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. These vehicles draw electricity preciselyfrom the grid and other off-board electrical power sources and store it in thebatteries.
Hybrid electric vehicles, which are fueled with liquidfuels, like gasoline, but primarily use electricity to increase their fuelefficiency. Adopting electricity to power vehicles will have better significantenergy security and reduce pollutant emissions in the environment.2.5 Hydrogen Hydrogen, under the Energy Policy Act of 1992, is considered as an alternative fuel.Hydrogen as an alternative transportation fuel, which stems from its capabilityto power fuel cells in zero-emission electric vehicles, its potential fordomestic production, its fast filling time, and the fuel cell’s highefficiency. In fact, a fuel cell when conjoined with an electric motor turnsout to be two to three times more productive than an internal combustion enginerunning on gasoline. Hydrogen also serves as a fuel for internal combustion engines.However, unlike FCEVs, Hydrogen produces tailpipe emissions and are less potent.
The amount of energy which is presentin 2.2 pounds (1 kilogram) of hydrogen gas is about the same as the energywhich is present in 1 gallon (6.2 pounds, 2.
8 kilograms) of gasoline. Since,hydrogen has a low volumetric energy density, hence it is stored on-board avehicle as a compressed gas in order to achieve the driving range ofconventional vehicles. Most current applications use high-pressure tanks whichare capable of storing hydrogen at either 5,000 or 10,000 psi. Retaildispensers are capable of filling these tanks in about 5 minutes. 2.
6 Natural GasNaturalgas, is a fossil fuel which is composed of mostly methane and is one of thecleanest burning alternative fuels. It can be found in the form of compressednatural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG) to fuel cars and trucks. About 96% of natural gas used in U.S.
is domestically produced Roughly 20% to 45% less smog-generating pollutants are found About 5% to 9% lesser greenhouse gas emissions are producedLess expensive than gasoline 3. Research Methods and ProceduresFor the collection of data, we floatedquestionnaires in form of google forms and we also used the means of Email tosend around copies of the questionnaires 3.1 SurveyA survey was conducted in the from online questionnairewhich was floated with the help of goggle form to collect primary data. Thesaid questionnaire was also distributed through other channels such as emailsto people with different and special demographics such as industry experts onthe subject. 3.2 Scale A five point Linkert scale was used from 1 to 5 to measurethe agreeableness of the population where one stands for strongly agree andfive stands for strongly disagree.
Linkert scale offers information to eachnumber in the scale so that the customer knows correctly what they areselecting. For the demographics question single choice scale was utilized where therespondents tick the alternative that fit. 3.3 SampleThe method used was simple random sampling method where theprobability of selecting any person is the same for all and each individual whois the part of the population has an equal chance to get selected in thesample.