Abstract Bullying refers to aggressive behavior that is repetitive andintentional in which a power differential exists between the victim and bully.The negative effects of bullying on an individual’s mental and physical healthare substantial and in line with other major forms of child maltreatment.Efforts to increase detection of bullying are indicated, especially among youthpresenting with school phobia, depression, anxiety, and declining schoolperformance.
Several antibullying efforts have been developed and promoted atthe school and community level. Research indicates that many of these programsare effective and share some common elements that can help reduce theprevalence and impact of bullying. This article comes in the help of teachers,parents, psychologists, pedagogues, students and everyone who wants tounderstand that the problem of bullying is a real one and we have to be awareof it. H.
Case H. is a 17 years old high school student who movedto town two months before taking a job at the movie theatre. She moved from herold town because she had been bullied by her colleagues at H.
old school. When H. first moved, she attended a party hosted byher “best and only friend” K., who indirectly introduced H. to twoboys, describing them as “stupidly sweet”. At school, H. and one ofthe boys begin a flirtatious relationship and she led himon a wild goose chase; she lured him onto the bus, got his number, ditched him on the bus, and told him to meet her at the park later that night.
They hangout in the park for a little while, and the boy secretly took a picture of H.as she was going down the slide while wearing a dress. They then kiss on theslide (H. revealed that it was her first kiss) and he sneakily took a few more pictures. At school the next day, the boy was talking to his friends and showingthem the pictures he took of H. The other boy then grabbed the phone from himand texted the picture to everyone in the school, igniting rumours of H. being”easy” and a slut, which was the initial blow to her reputation.After this episode, H.
thought that is a good idea to go to the school’scounselor and tell him about what happened the other day. The counselor toldher that this kind of things happens all the time and she should get over it.H. walks out of the office crying. Many more episodes of bullying happens to H. like : being slapped inpublic by one of her friends, had a stalker by her window at night takingpictures of her naked and distribute one of it at school and the most traumaticpart of H. life is that she was being raped at a party.
The tragic incident about the rape happened one night when H. wasfeeling lonely and she was at home all by herself. She then thought that itwill make her feel better to take a walk along the neighborhood with her bike. As she was ridingher bike she heard some music coming from a friend house. She approached thehouse and one of the boys greeted her and told her that she can come in. Aftera few drinks she wanted to go home feeling dizzy from the alcohol, one of theboys told her not to leave. H. was getting hotter and hotter from so manyglasses of wine so she went into the swimming pool.
One of the boys alsoentered with her. He grabbed her by her arms and put them behind her back. Hewas so strong and nobody was there to help her. She left the party crying andtelling herself that she wanted to die in that very moment. Let’s now talk about H. parents. Her mom and dad were working at theirown business: a pharmacy. Earlier that day when she got raped, something elsehappened to her.
Her parents give her an amount of money that H. needed to putthem in the bank account. She lost the money and told them how this happened.They were so disappointed, but let the story vanish away. H. decides to give life one more try. She went into her parents’pharmacy and asked for some money, but when they weren’t looking, she alsograbbed some razor blades.
She visited counselor and discloses that she gave upon life and wanted it all to end, admitting her rape but when she couldn’t tellhim her rapist’s identity, he told her to move on with life. H. went back home,filled her bathtub and had used the razors she stole from her father’s shop toslit her wrists.
H. then died by bleeding out to death and was found by hermother and father but she had already died. Dilemma In this situation that we have presented, the dilemma is the followingstatement: the counselor is the main actor, therefore he is in the middle ofall H.
decision to take her life. When H. come to tell him her problems hedidn’t question himself if what she told him is real. The second time she cameto him, he wanted to do something about it but he was wondering if it’s thebest to tell the school principal, the police but not at least, H. parents. Hewanted a name for the rapist.
The girl got scared and didn’t tell him the nameso he thought that this isn’t real as well and she just wanted attention. Understanding the problem H. says about herself that she is feeling very lonely and her parentsare too preoccupied with their business tohave time to talk with her. She tried to make friends, but in the end,all of the bullied her. She also explains that she can’t understand why hercolleagues are doing those things to her. She really wanted to have an amazinghigh school experience when she moved in the town. As we go further in this case, we have to rely on a theory for a betterunderstanding.
The psychology usually use Uri Bronfenbrenner ecological system:this theory helps us understand why we may behave differently when we compareour behaviour in the presence of our family and our behaviour when we are inschool or at work. . We will begin with the first level of Bronfenbrenner’s theory: the microsystem.
The microsystem is thesystem closest to the person and the one in which they have direct contact.Some examples would be home, school. A microsystem typically includes family,peers, or caregivers. Relationships in a microsystem are bi-directional.
Inother words, your reactions to the people in your microsystem will affect howthey treat you in return. This is the most influential level of the ecologicalsystems theory. Let’s look at the microsystem H. lives in. The first part of hismicrosystem is her home environment. This includes his interactions with herparents. H.’s school is also part of her microsystem.
Her regular schoolinteractions are with her teachers, counselor and the other children in herclass. The next level of ecological systems theory is the mesosystem. The mesosystem consists of the interactions between the different parts of a person’smicrosystem. The mesosystem is where a person’s individual microsystems do notfunction independently, but are interconnected and assert influence upon oneanother. These interactions have an indirect impact on the individual.
One aspect of H.’s mesosystem would be the relationship between her andher supposed “friends”. Her parents don’t take an active role in the schoolproblems nor her life. She considers that her mother and father are too engagedin their busyness. This has a negative impact on her development because thedifferent elements of her microsystem are not working together. H.
‘sdevelopment is affected in a negative way because the different elements of hismicrosystem were working against one another. The exosystem is the next level we will examine.The exosystem refers to a setting that does not involve the person as an activeparticipant, but still affects them. This includes decisions that have bearingon the person, but in which they have no participation in the decision-makingprocess. One part of H.’s exosystem would be the decision ofthe counselor not to do anything about her problems and her family not to getinvolved in her life outside family time. This situation impacts H.
and shebecomes anxious, filling more and more lonely and irrational. The macrosystem is the largest and most distantcollection of people and places to the child that still exercises significantinfluence on the child. It is composed of the child’s cultural patterns andvalues, specifically the child’s dominant beliefs and ideas, as well as politicaland economic systems. The chronosystem adds the useful dimension of time,which demonstrates the influence of both change and constancy in the child’senvironment.
The chronosystem may thus include a change in family structure,address, parent’s employment status, in addition to immense society changessuch as economic cycles and wars. Was there something to do? To show interprofessional collaboration betweenschool, police, parents and the community we can do the following steps. Thiskind of relationships between this three major institution can help prevent anykind of bullying to happen.
Establish common set of expectations for positive behavior across allschool contexts. Establish and implement clear anti-bullying policies. Involve all school staff, police and parents inprevention activities. Train teachers to implement effective classroom management strategiesand how to respond to bullying. Provide high-levels of supervision in bullying “hot spots” (e.g., playgrounds, hallways, cafeteria)Training for parents made by teachers in collaboration with police: – How to talk with their childrenabout bullying – How to communicate concerns about bullying to the school – How to get actively involved in school-based prevention efforts • Bullyingprevention activities for the community: – Awareness and social marketing campaigns producedby school and involving the entire community around school and so on – Messages tailored for specific groups of adults (e.g., doctors, policeofficers) –Opportunities to become involved in prevention activities