A study was done by Zolfaghari et al. (2013) todetermine the awareness of Tehran residents of seven warning signs of cancer,and application of protective measures against cancer. The researcher used adescriptive-analytical cross-sectional survey with the population of allresidents of Tehran that meet their specific criteria.
2500 residents of Tehranwere selected as respondents by using systematic cluster random sampling. Thedata collection instruments used was interviews and questionnaire. The datathen was analysed using Chi-square test by using SPSS-11.5 software. Thewarnings signs of cancer that was asked in the questionnaire are changes inbowel and bladder habits, a sore that does not heal, unusual bleeding,emergence of a mass, difficulty swallowing, indigestion, a change in a wart ormoles, dry and noisy coughs and rapid weight loss.
The results of the study showsthat demographic profiles (age, marital status, educational level and place ofresidence in Tehran) is significantly associated with the awareness. It provesthat respondent with younger age have good awareness compared to the olderrespondent, married respondent have better awareness and the respondent withhigher level of education have better awareness towards warning sign of cancer. Waller et al.
(2009) had done a research amongethnic minority groups in England to explore the ethnic differences factor aspossible contributors to delay in cancer diagnosis. The researcher used quotasampling to select the respondents. Total of 1500 respondents was selected fromthe six largest ethnic minorities groups in the United Kingdom and theresearcher used face to face interviews to collect data. The questions asked duringthe interview are about the respondents’ demographic characteristics.
Thewarnings signs that were included are unexplained lump or swelling, unexplainedpain, unexplained weight loss, unexplained bleeding, cough or hoarseness,change in a mole, change in bowel or bladder habits, sore that does not heal,and difficulty swallowing. After that, the data collected were analysed byusing SPSS 14.0 which include Chi-square test to examine ethnic differences inrecall and recognition of each symptom. ANCOVAs were also used to examineindependent demographic predictors of the total number of warning signsrecalled or recognised. The result ofthe study shows that the ethnicity and language (demographic characteristics)were significantly associated with warning sign score and age was associatedwith recognition of warning sign for the older respondents.
For the warningsigns, a lump or swelling was the most recognised symptom whether in recall orrecognised of warning signs. However, unexplained pain was the most recognisedsymptom in Bangladeshi and Caribbean groups. Overall there are differentresults of recognition of warning sign for different ethnic. Ethnic differenceswere significant for all symptoms except for cough or hoarseness. In 2009, Robb et al. had made a research about publicawareness of cancer in Britain. The objective of the research is toassess public awareness of cancer warning signs, anticipated delay andperceived barriers to seeking medical advice in the British population.
Thestudy done by using face-to-face and computer-assisted interviews to administerthe cancer awareness measure (CAM). The researcher used stratified probabilitysampling to select 67 postal sectors as sampling points and a random address 3652households were chosen as a sample. Questionnaires was used as a datacollection method and the questions include the socio-demographic questions aswell as awareness of cancer warning which was asked in both open andclosed-ended question. For demographic characteristics the descriptivestatistics were done while chi-square tests and analysis of variance were usedto examine relationships between demographic characteristics and CAM items.Analysis of covariance was also used to examine the relationship betweendemographic factors and awareness of cancer warning signs. The recall of ninewarning signs include lump or swelling, unexplained bleeding, unexplained pain,unexplained weight loss, change in a mole, change in bowel or bladder habits,persistent cough, sore that does not heal and difficulty swallowing. The resultshows that the most recall signs is lump/swelling (68%) but poor for all othersigns. Overall, based on ANCOVA, female, older, married, white and higher SESgroup were the significant independent predictors to the total number of cancerwarning signs recognised.