A the researcher used face to face interviews to

A study was done by Zolfaghari et al. (2013) to
determine the awareness of Tehran residents of seven warning signs of cancer,
and application of protective measures against cancer. The researcher used a
descriptive-analytical cross-sectional survey with the population of all
residents of Tehran that meet their specific criteria. 2500 residents of Tehran
were selected as respondents by using systematic cluster random sampling. The
data collection instruments used was interviews and questionnaire. The data
then was analysed using Chi-square test by using SPSS-11.5 software. The
warnings signs of cancer that was asked in the questionnaire are changes in
bowel and bladder habits, a sore that does not heal, unusual bleeding,
emergence of a mass, difficulty swallowing, indigestion, a change in a wart or
moles, dry and noisy coughs and rapid weight loss. The results of the study shows
that demographic profiles (age, marital status, educational level and place of
residence in Tehran) is significantly associated with the awareness. It proves
that respondent with younger age have good awareness compared to the older
respondent, married respondent have better awareness and the respondent with
higher level of education have better awareness towards warning sign of cancer.
 Waller et al. (2009) had done a research among
ethnic minority groups in England to explore the ethnic differences factor as
possible contributors to delay in cancer diagnosis. The researcher used quota
sampling to select the respondents. Total of 1500 respondents was selected from
the six largest ethnic minorities groups in the United Kingdom and the
researcher used face to face interviews to collect data. The questions asked during
the interview are about the respondents’ demographic characteristics. The
warnings signs that were included are unexplained lump or swelling, unexplained
pain, unexplained weight loss, unexplained bleeding, cough or hoarseness,
change in a mole, change in bowel or bladder habits, sore that does not heal,
and difficulty swallowing. After that, the data collected were analysed by
using SPSS 14.0 which include Chi-square test to examine ethnic differences in
recall and recognition of each symptom. ANCOVAs were also used to examine
independent demographic predictors of the total number of warning signs
recalled or recognised.  The result of
the study shows that the ethnicity and language (demographic characteristics)
were significantly associated with warning sign score and age was associated
with recognition of warning sign for the older respondents. For the warning
signs, a lump or swelling was the most recognised symptom whether in recall or
recognised of warning signs. However, unexplained pain was the most recognised
symptom in Bangladeshi and Caribbean groups. Overall there are different
results of recognition of warning sign for different ethnic. Ethnic differences
were significant for all symptoms except for cough or hoarseness.  

In 2009, Robb et al. had made a research about public
awareness of cancer in Britain. The objective of the research is to
assess public awareness of cancer warning signs, anticipated delay and
perceived barriers to seeking medical advice in the British population. The
study done by using face-to-face and computer-assisted interviews to administer
the cancer awareness measure (CAM). The researcher used stratified probability
sampling to select 67 postal sectors as sampling points and a random address 3652
households were chosen as a sample. Questionnaires was used as a data
collection method and the questions include the socio-demographic questions as
well as awareness of cancer warning which was asked in both open and
closed-ended question. For demographic characteristics the descriptive
statistics were done while chi-square tests and analysis of variance were used
to examine relationships between demographic characteristics and CAM items.
Analysis of covariance was also used to examine the relationship between
demographic factors and awareness of cancer warning signs. The recall of nine
warning signs include lump or swelling, unexplained bleeding, unexplained pain,
unexplained weight loss, change in a mole, change in bowel or bladder habits,
persistent cough, sore that does not heal and difficulty swallowing. The result
shows that the most recall signs is lump/swelling (68%) but poor for all other
signs. Overall, based on ANCOVA, female, older, married, white and higher SES
group were the significant independent predictors to the total number of cancer
warning signs recognised.

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