A statutoryrequirement is a requirement for an industry that is controlled by thegovernment. Because of this, the industry must follow the rules and regulationsthat is informed by the government. An example of a statutory regulation is thesecurity in the exchange commissions controlled by the us government.
Whereas anon-statutory regulation can give you more guidance and advisable. Non-statutorydocuments within the electrical industry are considered more of a guidance thanstatutory documents. Non statutory in the world of electrical installations hasbecome common practice to use this term to describe the most reliable andinformative industry reference material, such as Codes of Practice (COP),British Standards (such as BS 7671) and even Best Practice Guides. Statutory regulations 1. Health and Safety at Work act HASAW 1974 (Commercial)Health and safety at work Act 1974 is one ofthe main regulations that is used in a work place to help secure the health,welfare and safety of people working. This could be the employees, visitors andthe others working in the work place. It covers electrical installations aswell; it covers all aspects, which regards to making a work place safe. Thisact is a commercial premise.
HSWA has made a work place safer by keepingcontrol of possession of dangerous substances, controlling certain emission andby respecting their workers medical needs. All workers must follow the healthand safety act to make sure that their workplace is not dangerous; otherwise,it is dangerous to the public. 2. Electricity at work regulations EAWR 1989 (Commercial) Electricity atwork regulation is to protect a worker from death or an injury from electricaldevices in a work place. All portable electrical equipment must be tested andinspected regally (commonly every 12 months). This inspection can be fromchecking the cable and wires to a toaster, too seeing if all components worksin a PCB in a computer works.
EAWR covers commercial premises but it does notcover domestic premises. The Electricity at Work Regulations 1989require those in control of all or part of an electrical system to ensure it issafe to use and maintained in a safe condition. 3. Building Regulations Part P (Domestic)The building regulation consists of how abuilding is constructed. This can be ranging from the parts of the building tothe end of the construction. These are approved documents, which carry out tomeet both domestic and commercial building works. What is PartP electrical?Part P wasintroduced into the building regulations in 2005 by the government. It was newelectrical safety rules which must apply to all domestic homes in England andwales which they must comply to.
But then only 14% of the public are known towhat Part P is, which is a very minor amount compared to the amount of peoplewho are aware of Gas safety which is around 45%. The lack of awareness inEngland and wales shows that government need to take initiative and improvepublic knowledge. Part P was introduced to protect people from any form ofelectrical mishaps and to make sure that only people qualified can carry outelectrical work in the home. This also applies to those who have taken a part pcourse as a part of their qualifications.
How does PartP apply to you?Part p appliesto those that live in domestic homes, flats and those living in properties witha communal area. It also applies to electrical installation where the businessshares an electrical supply with a home, for example houses on top of shops orstores. It’s important to understand what type of electrical work needs doing.There are two types of work: notifiable and minor work.
Any type of electricalwork must comply with Part P. This is important because if Part P hasn’t beencomplied with then that is a criminal offense and your home insurance will beinvalid. Notifiable The wiring of a new circuit Full house rewire New full electrical installation on a new build The replacement of a consumer unit (fuse box) Any addition or alteration to existing circuits in a special location Minor• Work that is not in a space surrounding water(e.g.
shower/bath or swimming pool) and consists of: adding lighting points toan existing circuit.• Replacing damaged cable for a single circuitonly.• Installing outside lights or sockets from anexisting circuit• Replacing socket outlets, control switches etc.
4. Electricity Safety, Quality and ContinuityRegulations 2002 (Commercial)Control of substances of hazardous of healthregulation help you protect yourself from hazardous substances. You can helpprevent your workers getting injured by knowing what hazardous substance it is,doing a risk assessment, providing control measures, keeping control of allmeasurements, providing information, instruction and training for the employeesand others, providing monitoring and health surveillance in appropriate casesand planning for emergencies. As of newtechnology discovering harmful substances that be used to benefit thecontractor, which leads to harm to the employees, contractors and other people. Non-statutory regulations 1. BS7671:2008(Domestic but can be used for commercial)BS7671 2008+A3 2015 is a book that has therequirements for electrical installation.
This consists of how to meet thisdifferent requirement for all the different kinds of Electricity at WorkRegulation 1989 (EAWR). Anyone working on a building should have a goodknowledge of the book because it talks about the installation and maintained ofall the different types of wiring in buildings. It is a national standard thatBS7671 must have domestic and commercial writing in it. 2.
Healthand Safety Documents such as GS38 GS38 2015 is fourth edition of the guidancenotes which was published in 2015. The book consists of electrical testequipment on low voltage electrical systems. This guidance note is aimed forpeople who use electrical test equipment on low voltage electrical systems andequipment, for example: electricians,electrical contractors, test supervisors, technicians, managers, tradespeople,appliance retailers/repairer. Who use electrical test equipment on low voltageelectrical systems and equipment. This fourth edition is updated to includecurrent test equipment; the guidance has not fundamentally changed from theprevious version.
3. IETsGuidance notes These eightpublications are designed to provide more detailed guidance about specificareas on BS 7671. In order, each publication covers:• Guidance Note 1: Selection and erection• Guidance Note 2: Isolation and switching• Guidance Note 3: Inspection and testing• Guidance Note 4: Protection against fire• Guidance Note 5: Protection against electricshock• Guidance Note 6: Protection against overcurrent• Guidance Note 7: Special locations• Guidance Note 8: Earthing and bonding 4.
IETrelated publications and documents (On-site guide)The On-Site Guide is one of a number ofpublications offered by the IET to provide guidance on certain aspects of BS7671.Its scope generally follows that of BS 7671 and also includes some materialthat is not included in BS 7671. It provides the background to the intentionsof BS 7671 and gives other sources of information as well. It does not,however, ensure compliance with BS 7671, as it is a simple guide to therequirements of BS 7671. So, electrical installers and/or designer shouldtherefore always consult BS 7671 to satisfy themselves of compliance.It cannot be guaranteed that BS 7671complies with all relevant statutory regulations. It is, therefore, essentialto establish which statutory and other appropriate regulations apply and toinstall accordingly. For example, an installation in licensed premises may haverequirements that differ from, or are additional to, BS 7671 and these musttake precedence.
5. NICEIC’s guidance (Inspection, testingand certification)Theaim of this publication is to promote best practice by providing electricalcontractors and others with practical advice, guidance and answers to a numberof questions that commonly arise during the inspection and testing ofelectrical installation work, or during the preparation of the associatedcertificates and reports.Itessentially complements Part 7 Inspection and testing of BS 7671 and theinformation and advice provided in other authoritative publications such asIET’s Guidance Note 3. It covers the general requirements relating to theinspection and testing of electrical installations forming part of TN-C-S, TN-Sand TT systems in the UK, but not specialised electrical installations such asfire alarm and emergency lighting systems, or installations in hazardous areas.The book also assumes that all personsundertaking such work already have acquired the necessary knowledge,understanding and skill, and are properly equipped, to undertake such workwithout putting themselves and others at risk.
It is therefore not intended tobe an instruction booklet for untrained and inexperienced persons. Comparison between statutory and non-statutory regulationsA statutory requirement is a requirement written into a law passed by alegislative body, while non-statutory requirements are those requirements madeby a government agency in accordance with the law. A legislature gives agenciesthe right to make regulations. Circuit protection methods 1.
Fuses This is one of the basic types of circuitprotection. This works by destroying itself to break the circuit when currentexceeds the rating of the fuse. Once a fuse has blown, it must be replaced.
Inold equipment, the fuse might just be a length of appropriate fuse fixedbetween two screw terminals. These are becoming rare because if these arepresent usually indicates to update your installations. Modern fuses are normally incorporatedwithin a sealed ceramic cylindrical body and the whole cartridge needs to bereplaced if the fuse happens to blow. Cartridge fuses are used in older typeconsumer units, fused sockets, fused plugs etc. 2. Miniature circuit breakers (MCB)MCBs are used in consumer units and are analternative to fuses.
They are switches which turn off when an overload isdetected in the ciruit. The advantage of MCBs over fuses are that the MCB cantrip and be reset easily without destroying it and it also has a more accuratetripping value. 3. Residual current devices (RCD) This is a modern alternative to earthleakage circuit breakers and fuses in the consumer unit. This RCD trips whenthey can detect any current imbalance between the live and the neutral wiresabove the stated trip value (this is usually stated typically around 30mA) They can be wired to protect either asingle circuit or a number of circuits. The benefit of it only overlooking onecircuit is that if the RCD happens to trip it will only cut off power to thatprotected circuit and not a number of circuits around the house.
RCDs come in different variations forexample: Inside Consumer units – An RCD can come hardwired in units, this is where the outputs and inputs are wired into the unit.This is ideal for a workshop where all the sockets within can be protected.Each individual circuit taken from the RCD is also protected by an MCB to anappropriate value. Protected outlets – This can be fitted as adirect replacement to a previous conventional outlet socket. A plug-in unit – This can convert anysocket into a protected circuit. This can give good flexibility.
Reduce the risk of electric shock Protective earthingProtective earthing confirms that the circuit protective device will detachthe supply in the event of a fault and limit the rise in potential, above Earthpotential, of any exposed conductive parts during the fault. ProtectivebondingProtective bonding is required to minimise any potential differencebetween exposed conductive parts and extraneous conductive parts during afault. The outcome of bonding these two parts together is to equalise potentialand not to carry fault current; however, in some cases, bonding conductors maycarry fault current where they form a parallel earth return path to the sourceof supply during the loss of a neutral conductor in a PME supply.This highlights that the term ‘Earth bonding’ should not be used whenapplying earthing or protective bonding.Examples of extraneous conductive parts that may require bondinginclude: water installation pipes; gas installation pipes; other installation pipework and ducting; central heating and air-conditioning services; and exposed metal structural parts of a building.
?Automaticdisconnection in the event of a faultADS in the event of a fault is achieved when the circuit protectivedevice operates within the required time period for a given supply system. Thisis dependent on circuit design parameters and limits, which are not the focusof this article. In TN and TT systems an overcurrent protective device or anRCD may be used to provide circuit fault protection. There are specificrequirements when using RCDs for fault protection that should be adhered to.
Reference to RCDs is made in Regulation 411.4.4 for TN systems and TT systemsare referenced in Regulations 411.5.2 /411.
5.3.In certain circumstances, RCDs are also used for additional protectionwhere more onerous situations are present, see Regulation 411.3.3. Relevantsections of Part 7 also stipulate the use of RCDs, when required, in speciallocations. Understanding the different types of RCD is now important as newinclusion to BS 7671, Section 722, includes specific reference to RCDs of types’A’ and ‘B’.
Once all the basic and fault protection requirements for ADS have beenmet we can say that the electrical circuit/installation/system has shockprotection.Double or reinforced insulationThis type of shock protection is not very common and requires that onlyequipment that is of a class II construction, which has double insulation orreinforced insulation, is to be used in the installation. To that end onlyequipment with no exposed conductive parts that may become live in the event ofa fault can be used.Double insulation uses basic protection provided by basic insulationand fault protection is provided by supplementary insulation.Reinforced insulation is where the protection is provided by single orbasic insulation but has the same protective properties as double insulation.