a. “High-Frequency words There is a small group of high frequency which is very important because these words cover a very large ratio of the running words in spoken and written texts and happen in all types of uses of the language.b. Academic wordsThe text is from an academic textbook and contains many words that are mutual in different kinds of academic text: policy, phase, adjusted, sustained. Typically these words make up about 9% of the running words in the text.c.
Technical wordsThe text contains some words that are very closely concerning to the topic and subject of the text. These words include indigenous, regeneration, Pod carp, beech, rimy and timber. These words are reasonably common in this topic area but not so common elsewhere. As soon as it can be seen that the learners know that topic is being transact with. Technical words like these typically cover about 5% of the running words in a text.
d. Low-frequency wordsThis group included words like zoned, pioneering, and perpetuity, aired and pastoral. They make up over 5% of the words in an academic text. There are thousands of them in the language, by far the biggest group of words. They consist of technical words for other subject areas, proper nouns; a word that almost got the high-frequency list and words that learner seldom meet in our use of the language”.
Based on the explanation above, it can be said that the types of vocabulary are: high frequency word, academic word, technical word and low frequency word. In other words, it can be said that by knowing the kinds of vocabulary the learners can understand the text.Also Harmer (1991:159) states that “there are two types of vocabulary:a.
Active vocabularyActive vocabulary is used in oral and written expression by the students. The words that the students comprehend well enough; they use the words effectively in both speaking and writing.b. Passive vocabularyPassive vocabulary deals with words students will recognize comprehend in a context that helps them recall the word meaning. Students usually apply passive vocabulary in listening and reading materials”.From the explanation above, the types of vocabulary can be categorized into active and passive vocabulary. Active vocabulary is used in speaking and writing skills.
Then passive vocabulary is used in listening and reading skills.In addition, Cummins (1999) as cited in Herrel (2004:113) states that “there are different types of vocabulary