A and sexual abuse and adolescent use of drugs

             A number of various factors affectingthe risk-taking behaviors in adolescents. Adolescents and young adults takemore risks than any other age groups (Steinberg, 2008).

Studies show that thesegroups are really aware of risk-taking. Most developmental changes occurring inthis time especially hormone and brain changes. This is a period of stress and excitement.More highlighted risk-taking behaviors are alcohol and tobacco use, dangerousdriving, criminal activities, and unsafe sex.

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Adolescences are mainly dependedon their friends for decision making, which could lead to a faulty decision.Main risk factors are familial, social and individual.            1. Familial Risk Factors: Itincludes childhood maltreatment (abuse and neglect), family history on substanceabuse, parent-child relationship, and fear about parent approval of theirsubstance use. It causes physical and emotional distress to them.

Thismaltreatment, linked to increased risk for adolescent substance use. (a) Physicaland Sexual abuse: there is a significant relationship between physical andsexual abuse and adolescent use of drugs and alcohol. Posttraumatic stressdisorder also associated with childhood abuse. These are giving more stress tothe brain and leads to risky behaviors.

(b)Emotional abuse and Neglect:witnessing violence can increase the use of substance use disorder. It affectsthe brain development in various ways and has long-term side effects.            2. Social Risk Factors: It includesmainly peer pressure, gangs, bullying, and popularity. (a) Deviant Peer relationships:The influence of peer is very crucial in the adolescent period.

Peer relationshipencourages them to use substance for social standing  and do careless driving for popularity. A negativeparent-child relationship also leads them to join the bad peer group. They aremore encountered to take risky behaviors with their peers than when they alone.

(b) Popularity: adolescents believe that their popularity in the peer groupbased on risk-taking activities. There is also a correlation between self-identification and substance abuse. An adolescent who wants to be a leader theymore inclined to smoke cigarettes, and who wants to join the group use morealcohol. Youngsters with their peer group they want to spend more time on theroad especially at night time and which leads to more accidents. (c) Bullying: whoeveris involved in bullying have increased the risk of mental health disorder andpsychological problems than those who have not participate or victim inbullying. (d) Gang Affiliation: more prompt to do criminal activities. Somereligious and cultural practices also motivate the youngsters to use thesubstance.

Gangs are encouraging them to take a greater riskof unsafe sex and reckless driving.           3. Individual Risk Factors: Two common individualrisk factors are attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) anddepression. Depression linked to genetics and also results from stress.            To conclude, adult risky behaviorsand risk factors are interrelated. Brain development, hormone changes,personality, and cultural norms also play a role in determining adolescence risk-takingbehaviors.