3.0 Introductionto research methodologyIn any research,the identification and exploration of research methodologies is an importantpart and it should be commenced with appropriate methods (Saunders, Lewis andThornhill, 2009). Research Methodology is a way to systematically solve aproblem.
Therefore, this chapter will elaborate and support the researchstrategy followed in this HR Project.3.1 Types of dataThere are 3 types of data namely:1.
Primary data- these are data that arecollected for the first time; they are the fresh hand information,2. Secondary data- Data that already existed inliterature,3. Tertiary data- it is the unification of bothprimary and secondary data. 3.
2 Types of MethodsA starting pointin trying to understand data collection is that there are three broadapproaches: 1. QuantitativeResearch2. QualitativeResearch 3. MixedMethod ResearchThe method thathave been used to generate and acquire the data for the HR Project is the QualitativeResearch. This refers to data in words that gives a full detailed account ofthe subject under study and is best to study feelings, emotions and othersubjective state of minds. Here an example would be the recruitment process. 3.3 Data CollectionThere are manyfactors that need to be taken into consideration while going for datacollection as to ensure reliability, validly and objectivity.
As these factorsare properly considered the process of data collected is easier to be carriedout and saves time. 3.4 ObservationObservation is a way of obtaining data on people’slife by watching their behaviour in their natural environment.When studyingpeople in their natural environment their true, genuine behaviour can beobserved.Observation takes2 forms:v Non- Participant Observation v Participant Observation 3.5 Non-Participant ObservationThis is a type ofobservation where the researcher watches a group from a distance, by followingthem around and recording information.
The researcher does not get involved in any activity of the group. The members of the group are unaware of theirparticipation in a research. Along the advantages there are some disadvantagesassociated with Non-Participant Observation. 3.5.
1 DISADVANTAGESOF NON-PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION1. The researcherobserves the group from a distance thus, will have interpreted what he isseeing as he cannot go too close to the group. Sometimes, he might misinterpret the actions or activities of the group.
Thus, the validity of the research will bedistorted and also there is no objectivity as the researcher is using hispersonal judgements when trying to interpret actions.2. Non-participantobservation is not a practical method to use as it is very demanding as theresearcher has follow the group all the time and also involves danger ifdiscovered.3. Non-participantobservation studies are difficult if not to say impossible to replicate thatis, repeat under the same conditions. This primary method relies heavily on the personal qualities of theobserver. Different observers willinterpret a group differently based on how they see the group and this reducesthe possibilities of replication.
So,there is a low reliability in participant observation.For thisassessment Participant Observation has been used. 3.
6 ParticipantObservation (PO) As mentioned previously, for this assessmentParticipant observation has been used. Itis a primary method where a researcher enters a group, is accepted by them andacts as a full member that is, he participates in all the activities of thegroup.Participant Observation is one of the main researchmethods used in ethnography. Ethnographyis the study of the way of life of a group of society for example theirculture.It is a qualitative research method and allows a morein-depth analysis of the subject and is favoured by the interpretivists. 3.
6.1 ADVANTAGES OF PARTICIPANT OBSERVATIONInterpretivists favour this method for its variousadvantages namely: Participant observation gives researchers the opportunity to observe people in their natural environment unlike artificial methods like questionnaire and experiment. Thus, true and genuine information can be obtained which help to increase the validity of the research. This also provides a more detailed and thorough analysis of people’s life as the researcher interact with people in their natural environment. 2.
Whenusing Participant observation as a primary method the researcher participatesfully in all the activities of the group and therefore, he can have a betterview of the group and he can see the world through the eyes of subjects thatis, from their perspective. The observercan discover meanings and appreciate their experiences. Participant observation involves a researcher observing everything with his own eyes and do not ask questions like in questionnaire and structured interviews where people have a tendency to lie or exaggerate. Participant observation offers the chance to discover what people actually do and thus, the chance to obtain valid data.
What people say and what they do are sometimes different. So, with participant observation we do not relate on the answers given by people, we observe everything ourselves. So, can be sure about the data collected. Methods like questionnaire and interviews rely on questions already prepared by the researcher and therefore it may happen that the researcher do not ask about certain things relevant to the research. So, participant observation can provide the kind of insight, fresh information and new directions for research which are less likely to come from other methods. 3.6.
2 DISADVANTAGESOF PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION Participant observation may not be a practical method to use as it may involve personal costs, is demanding and can also involve danger particularly if the researcher acts as a covert observer. Some researchers spend years in observing a group. One big problem with participant observation both overt and covert is that the personal involvement which participant observation demands can reduce objectivity. An observer can identify so strongly with a group that the behaviour of its members is invariably seen in a positive light. So, when reporting about the group the researcher will try to give a kindly but biased account of the group. This distorts both validity and objectivity of the research.
Participant Observation very often relies on the observation of the researcher and the observer in certain cases might misunderstand or misinterpret the actions of the members of the group being studied and if this happens the validity of the research will be distorted. 3.7 Analysis To analyse thedata collected, two approaches were used: • DirectApproach: The data collected is explained by making use of theories in theliterature review. Summative Approach:The data collected is compared to the literature review and analysis is madebased on personal comprehension