2Why is a clean burning alternative fuel that comes

2Why Use Alternative Fuels:

To prevented the
Environmental Damage

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To prevented the Global

Minimizing the oil Spills

To prevent the air
Pollution and also the acid Rain

Health Threat of Fossil
Fuel Use

Maximize the running of
vehicles without the use of Oil

Improve the availability
of fuels & minimize the cost of fuel


1.3 Biodiesel is manufacture from a
chemical process which is known as transesterification. Chemically biodiesel is
referred as mono alkyl esters of long chain fatty acid derived from renewable
biological sources. It can be directly used in the compression ignition engine.
Biodiesel fuel is a clean burning alternative fuel that comes from 100%
renewable resources.


1.3.1 Merits of Biodiesel Fuel:

Biodiesel is a
renewable resource: Biodiesel made
from vegetable oil, waste cooking oil alge, fungi etc, then called biodiesel is
renewable energy sources unlike other petrol diesel oil.

Use in without modify diesel engines: Advantage of biodiesel is used in existing diesel
engines without modifications at the existing engine. Biodiesel can be used in
(B100), (B20), and (B5) or in blended with petro diesel. For e.g. B5 is called
as 5% blend of biodiesel with 95% diesel fuel. It benefits for engine lubrication
and increases life of engine due to less contain of sulfur.

Greenhouse gas emissions: Biodiesel oil emitted less amount of carbon dioxide.
Used blend (B20) reduce the CO2 by15-20%. Fossil fuels emitted more carbon
dioxide, which are the causes of global warming in the earth due to raises the
temperature. For environment concern use of biofuels.

Locally produced biofuel: Fossil fuels and natural gases are limited
resources available in the world and these resources are depicting after some
time, so alternative fuel is must necessary to fulfill people demand. Biodiesel
is an alternative fuel and can reduce dependency of petro diesel fuel.

 Refined biofuel
: When oil is taken from the earth called
crude oil. Refined Crude oil has been used to run diesel engines. When crude
oil is refined, come out many chemical product such as benzene and butadiene
in the environment which are harmful effect for all living things in the earth. Biodiesel
refineries occur from vegetable and animal, then releases less toxic product
and bio fuel also called environment friendly.

Biodegradable and Non-Toxic: Biofuels are emitted fewer amounts of
carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and particulate matter. So
biofuels are called biodegradable and non toxic.

Economic aspect: Biofuels are produced in the village areas, so many
jobs created in the village for the production of biofuel that is reduce the
unemployment in country. Increase in demand for suitable biofuel crops due to
increase in demand of biodiesel. Moreover, biofuel emitted less amount of
particulate matter in the air. This reduces the price of healthcare products. In
biodiesel vehicles safe 25% fuel economy compare petroleum based diesel

Reduced fossil fuel
Biofuels are good alternative, renewable, non toxic fuel. It is good for environment,
health conscious for plant, animals and people. Thus biofules are reducing the
dependency of fossil fuel.

Health Benefits: Reason of air pollution death thousand
people in every year by using conventional fuel. Biofuesl are called
environmental friendly due emitted less smog and less toxic martial.

of Biodiesel Fuel

Variation in quality of
biodiesel: Biofuels
are occurring from vegetable oil, waste cooking oil, alge etc that mean
different type of crops. Variety of biofuel occur every type of crop. When the
oil is taken and converted to fuel using transterification, then produce power
using biofuel is varying in nature.

Biofuels are not use in low
temperatures: Use
proper blend biodiesel in cold weather. There may be
problems of winter compatibility. Spills of biodiesel can decolorize painted
surface if left for long. There may be problems of winter compatibility. Spills of biodiesel can
decolorize painted surface if left for long.

Food Shortage: Biodiesel are made from vegetable product,
animal fat, then increase demand for these products and increase cost for these
products which create food crisis in system. For example if the production of
biodiesel is more, then vegetable oil will be expensive of and tough living for
poor people.

Increased use of Fertilizers: Produce more biofuels more fertilizer is
used for more crops grown rapidly which can have harmful effect on environment.
Soil erosion and land pollution due to more use of fertilizers.

Clogging in Engine: Advantage of biodiesel cleans dirt from the
engine, but the dirt collected in fuel filter and clogging it. As Biodiesel cleans the dirt from the engine, this dirt can then get
collected in the fuel filter, thus clogging it. So, filters have to be changed
after the first several hours of biodiesel use.

High cost of production: will
eventually solve itself when large scale production and use starts. Also the
price of petrol-diesel does not take into account its actual cost .

1.3.3 Applications of Biodiesel

have many applications that are written as following:-

•      Transportation: The
alternatives like solar, wind and other alternative sources are not practical
for transportation due to lake efficiency. In the world, transport takes account of 25% of energy and more than 60% of absorbed
oil. That mean alternative fuel is necessary to operate vehicles and reduces
dependency of conventional oil.

•      Energy Generation: Due to population growth energy consumption is very high in India like
both rural and village areas.80% energy supply in India by fossil fuel (coal)
to fulfill demand. Biodiesel is good alternative to reduce dependency of fossil

Clean Oil Spills and Grease:
Biodiesel refineries occur from
vegetable and animal, then releases less toxic product and bio fuel called
environment friendly. biofuel can also help to clean up oil spills and grease.

•      Lubrication: Diesel fuel is required to reduce the sulphur
concentration as sulphur provides the most lubricity of fuel. This is important
when it comes to keeping the engine properly functioning and to avoid premature
infection failure.

Boiler Fuel: With natural gas price
increasing rapidly day to day, biodiesel can be substituted easily for natural
gas with minor changes necessary to the burner train.

Future scope of biodiesel fuels:

Biodiesel not only
solve the energy problem, but also it could be a good fuel additive and
alternative fuel for many uses. The present research work done of sunflower oil
and sunflower biodiesel as a diesel engine fuel. However, biofule can be used
to multi cylinder diesel engines, tractor engines and other diesel engines in
agriculture and transport sector. However, the long term stability is also
necessary to evaluate the durability of the engine with smooth operations. In
addition to this, improvement in production of sunflower biodiesel should be
tested in the future to motivate sunflower biodiesel properties and quality and
more research and development in biodiesel resources and engine designs are
needed. Subsequently, further examine on the additional fuel property measures
and wear analysis of sunflower oil and sunflower biodiesel fuelled engine is
also necessary. The popular vegetable oils like jatropha, karanja etc, which
have been recommended by the planning commission as a source of biodiesel
production, some un-tapped, un-explored vegetable oils like thumba, neem etc.
could also be used to produce biodiesel to fullfill the energy demand of the
country as an alternative or substitute fuel for diesel engines. Used cooking
oil is practically not available, as it is used till the end due to shortage.
In many developed countries vegetable oils (Rapeseed, Soy, Palm, Corn, Animal
Tallow) are in excess of their local requirements of edible oils. They have to
dispose off these oils and converting these to Biodiesel as fuel is best option
for them for disposal.India has best climate and rainfall for growing Jatropha
and Cheap labour for Harvesting.

feasibility of biodiesel

India has more resources of
edible and non-edible oilseeds; the production of oil seed is more and more if
the government provides basic facilities like water, electricity to farmers for
production of biodiesel. The cost of biodiesel depends on the cost of crude oil
and the cost of transporting diesel over long distances to remote areas. Cost of
diesel increased in due to the increase in its demand and limited supply.
Further, diesel costlier due to regulations of the aromatic and sulphur
contents, as the removal of aromatics from distillate fractions of petro diesel
needs costly processing equipment and continuous high operational cost as large
amounts of hydrogen are required for ring saturation. Similarly, reducing the
sulphur content is also a major challenge for the industries. Production of
methyl or ethyl esters from edible oils is much more costly compare to diesel
fuels due to the relatively high costs of vegetable oils (about four to five
times the cost of diesel in India). Thus methyl esters produced from such oils
is not economically than diesel fuels. For this situation, need to explore
alternate feedstocks for the