2.2.1 Customer attitudeCustomer attitude is defined as a overall evaluation of a products or service over time, which can satisfy individual motives as well as influencing the shopping habits of customers (Allport, 1935). It consists of three components which are customer’s beliefs, feelings and behavioural intentions towards some objects in the marketing context. (Gaspareniene, Remeikiene & Navickas, 2016). These components are highly interdependent as it can affect how customers react positively or negatively towards a products or a brand.
2.2.2 Purchase Intention (PI)Purchase Intention (PI) refers to the willingness of a consumer to buy a particular products or services (Shah et al., 2012). It is a kind of decision-making that study the reasons to buy a specific brand by consumers. Also, it is a dependent variable determined by some of independent variables that triggers buyers’ purchasing considerations. Gogoi (2013) stated that purchase intention is usually related to the perceptions, attitudes and behavior of consumers which is an effective tool to predict buying process.
Moreover, it may change under the fluctuation of price or perceived quality.2.2.3 Likeability According to Cialdini’s theory, likeability is one of principles to raise psychological triggers and influence customers’ perceptions. The liking principle defined that people are easily persuaded by other people they like. There are three important factors that contribute to likeability. Firstly, the physical attractiveness as we like people who like us.
Secondly, the similarity as we like people who share similar characteristics with us. Thirdly, the compliments as people liked to be praised (Cialdini, 2015). These elements make the message we delivered more persuasive and likeable. Hence, it is an effective tool in evaluating the effectiveness of advertisements.
2.3 Gender DifferenceWith the rising attention from society, gender difference has been studied in various disciplines, such as psychology, marketing, biology and management. There are different interpretation of gender difference. (Bakan 1966; Bem 1981; Kalleberg & Leicht 1991; Meyers-Levy 1988; Ohlott, Ruderman, & McCauley 1994; Putrevu 2001; Spence & Helmreich 1978; Stevens 1905). In psychological aspect, due to the different rate of biological development and the disparity in chemical and hormonal balance between males and females. Psychologists believed that individual differences in physical and mental traits and abilities were biologically determined (Fausto-Sterling 1985; Feingold 1992).In marketing aspect, contemporary research on gender differences has focused on cognitive abilities, social behavior and mate selection preferences (Buss 1995; Feingold 1992). Therefore, gender difference have been regard as one of the critical variable in affecting consumer attitudes and purchase intention in advertisement.
The relationship of gender difference towards persuasion heuristics on advertisement can be best explained by cognitive-experiential self-theory (CEST). CEST defined that people process informations by two parallel but interactive systems: analytical-rational and intuitive-experiential system. The analytical-rational system is intentional, logical and analytic while the intuitive-experiential system is fast, preconscious, automatic, and emotionally driven. The psychologists Seymour Epstein further indicated that men often use rational and logical thinking by analytical-rational system, while women prefer intuitive and feeling-based thinking by intuitive-experiential system (Epstein 1996; Pacini 1996).
Hence, CEST can explain why male and female differ in evaluating advertising messages.