According to WHO’s (World Health Organization) “Top 10 Causes of Death Worldwide”, a disease that is absolutely involved in these diseases, even though it has changed its place among the top 10 diseases: Tuberculosis.1 Various names have been used for this disease, which causes death to an extent that can not be counted; White Death, White Pleque and Captain of Death…Tuberculosis is as old as human history. This disease is not exactly known to date to humans for the first time, but the traces of tuberculosis have been seen in the spine bones of approximately 9,000 years old human remains.
2The main symptoms of tuberculosis include prolonged, bloody, mucus coughs (lasting longer than 3 weeks), chest pain, night sweats, weight loss and loss appetite. Tuberculosis mainly targets the lungs with alveoli, but it has also been observed that some symptoms target different parts of the body which called extrapulmonary tuberculosis. These are the lymphatic system, genitourinary system etc. Patients carrying the active form of TB can spread this disease by air to other people by coughing, sneezing or talking. These patients’ TB can be diagnosed by chest X-rays, examining body fluids under a microscope.
Patients who are exposed to that air which is carried TB bacterium are now carriers and must undergo various tests to understand this; for example, tuberculin skin test or blood test.3 Tuberculosis can be divided into two types; In latent tuberculosis bacterium is located in the body but is inactive but always has the potential to become active. People in this situation do not show symptoms of the disease, they are carriers only and not contagious. The other is active tuberculosis, in which bacterium is active, the symptoms of the disease are visible and the infectious agent is active. One-third of the world’s population is thought to be latent TB, but Latent TB is about 10 percent more likely to become active.
Nevertheless this possibility has the potential to be increased by external factors, that is to say, those who are not immune-compromised, eg HIV patients and even smokers.4