1. – if the diagnosis occurs at an early

1. Problem
statement Gastroenterologists routinely use endoscopes to diagnose
and treat pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract. However, such methods may
pose difficulty upon the patient and do not allow access to the small
intestinal tract and some other areas.  Wireless capsule Robots have been developed to
tackle this issue and attempts have been made to access smaller parts of the
intestines. The pill-shaped robots have generally only diagnostic function,
which is use cameras to take pictures of the intestinal wall and then pass them
back for evaluation. This enables for the detection of tumors, or GI conditions
such as Crohn’s disease. The challenges that these systems face is that they
have limited diagnostic capabilities and they do not offer the ability to
perform therapy to the affected areas leaving only the options of administering
large quantities of drugs or surgical intervention. In order to address the challenge of therapeutic
functions of a capsule robot in the GI tract, this thesis proposal presents a conceptual
design of a capsule robot which enables the function of targeted drug delivery
system. This proposal first provides a background of capsule root technology
through the evaluation of current and past literature. 2. Background In recent years, and increasing
amount of robotic systems has been implemented in surgical procedures. These
systems have customized design for some particular procedures such as eye
surgery, cardiac surgery, and abdominal surgery. Due to the improvement of
small-scale electronics, the tendency to create small-scale medical robots has
become common.   4.1 Capsule RobotsThe GI tract is home to many deadly
human diseases. Colorectal cancer alone is the third most common cancer in men
and the second in women worldwide 43. However, most GI diseases can be
prevented – or timely treated – if the diagnosis occurs at an early stage of
development. For this reason, GI screening is playing an increasingly important
role in healthcare systems worldwide. Wired endoscopy technology is used for
examining the upper and the lower parts of the GI tract, it is a common
procedure for diagnosing problems in the GI tract. In such procedure, a wire is
that contains a camera at the front end which is connected to a computer at the
other end is used. This wire allows the medical doctor to examine the necessary
areas through image transfer to a monitor. However, there is a disadvantage to
such systems. Wired endoscopes are unable to examine the entire GI tract, and
does not reach to the small intestine. The procedure may also cause discomfort,
vomiting and pain for the patients. Therefore, in the recent years,
there has been a growing demand for surgical procedures that can be less traumatic
to patients, less invasive and take shorter times. These issues are being
tackled by developing capsule robots, or capsule endoscopes, that employ
minimally invasive diagnostic tools.  It
is proposed that through the application of capsule robots, it is possible to
perform procedures in the gastrointestinal tract, such as detecting tumors or
other abnormalities.A capsule endoscope is able to
examine the entire GI tract with minor risks and less pain.  The patient swallows the capsule, which will
be propelled through the GI tract. As the capsule moves through the tract, the
small camera takes pictures and then the processor transfers those images
through a transmitter into an external recorder. After the examination is
complete, the receiver is returned to a physician for medical monitoring and
diagnosing. Many platforms have been developed since the first passive capsule
endoscopy was released 15 years ago by Given Imaging 4. The main capsule
endoscopy platforms are PillCam5, Olympus America Endo-Capsule 6, OMOM Pill
7, Micro Pill 8 and MC capsule endoscopy 9. However, only capsules that
have swallowable size of 26 mm x 11 mm were approved for clinical use. 4.2 Typical Design The typical design of the existing capsule technology
(Figure1) has an illumination source (LEDs), a sensor camera, two button
batteries, a microcontroller and a radio frequency system (RF). Conventional
WCE have sufficiently small geometry to allow them to pass through the small
intestines and navigate the ileocolic valve without becoming an obstruction. Generally,
capsule robots are 1-3 cm in diameter, they can interact with environment and
are able to collect information. 

As schematically represented in Fig. 1, the architecture
of a capsule robot can be described by the following modular modules: (1) a
central processing unit where intelligence is implemented; (2) a communication
submodule that links the device with the user intent; (3) a source of energy
that powers electrically the system; (4) sensors; (5) actuators; (6) mechanical
transmission and (7) end-effector, which interact with the surrounding
environment to accomplish one or more specific tasks and interact with the
target site, according to the specific functions the device is required to
fulfill.

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