1. Endogenous democratization theory/findings (Modernization Theory)democracy results from development under authoritarianism. That is, poor, authoritarian countries develop and become democratic once they reach some level of development. They developed under authoritarianism which leads to democracy. Many countries develop economically under dictatorships, then transition to democracy2. Exogenous democratization theory/findings (Modernization Theory)It is the Outside System. Dictatorships are equally likely to die and democracies emerge at any level of development and that development helps sustain democracy once it is established3. GlobalizationResults from the removal of barriers between national economies to encourage the flow of goods, services, capital, and labor.
While the lowering or removal of tariffs and quotas that restrict free and open trade among nations has helped globalize the world economy, transportation and communication technologies have had the strongest impact on accelerating the pace of globalization. the process by which businesses or other organizations develop international influence or start operating on an international scale.4.
Terrorismis the use of violence in order to achieve political aims or to force a government to do something. It is usually perpetrated by individuals and/or groups inspired by or associated with designated foreign terrorist organizations or nations (state-sponsored). It is the use of violence or threat of violence in the pursuit of political aims, religious, or ideological change. It can be committed by governments, non-state actors, or undercover personnel serving on the behalf of their respective governments.
It reaches more than the immediate target victims and is also directed at targets consisting of a larger spectrum of society.5. TotalitarianismTotalitarianism is a political system in which the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to regulate every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
A distinctive feature of totalitarian governments is an “elaborate ideology, a set of ideas that gives meaning and direction to the whole society”. Totalitarianism is the most extreme form of authoritarianism. The concept was first developed in the 1920s by the Weimar German jurist, and later Nazi academic, Carl Schmitt, and Italian fascists. Schmitt used the term, Totalstaat, in his influential work on the legal basis of an all-powerful state, The Concept of the Political (1927). The concept became prominent in Western political discourse as a concept that highlights similarities between Fascist states and the Soviet Union.
6. Democracyis a system of government in which the citizens exercise power directly or elect representatives from among themselves to form a governing body, such as a parliament. Democracy is sometimes referred to as “rule of the majority”. Democracy is a system of processing conflicts in which outcomes depend on what participants do, but no single force controls what occurs and its outcomes.
7. Responsibility to Protect (R2P)is a global political commitment which was endorsed by all member states of the United Nations at the 2005 World Summit to prevent genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity. The principle of the Responsibility to Protect is based upon the underlying premise that sovereignty entails a responsibility to protect all populations from mass atrocity crimes and human rights violations. The principle is based on a respect for the norms and principles of international law, especially the underlying principles of law relating to sovereignty, peace and security, human rights, and armed conflict.
8. Authoritarianismis a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms. Individual freedoms are subordinate to the state and there is no constitutional accountability under an authoritarian regime. Juan Linz’s influential 1964 description of authoritarianism characterized authoritarian political systems by four qualities Limited political pluralism, that is such regimes place constraints on political institutions and groups like legislatures, political parties and interest groups. A basis for legitimacy based on emotion, especially the identification of the regime as a necessary evil to combat “easily recognizable societal problems” such as underdevelopment or insurgency. Minimal social mobilization most often caused by constraints on the public such as suppression of political opponents and anti-regime activity. Informally defined executive power with often vague and shifting powers.9.
Democracies “Third Wave”The Third wave began in 1974 (Carnation Revolution, Portugal) and included the historic democratic transitions in Latin America in the 1980s, Asia Pacific countries (Philippines, South Korea, and Taiwan) from 1986 to 1988, Eastern Europe after the collapse of the Soviet Union, and sub-Saharan Africa beginning in 1989. decrease of legitimacy of authoritarian regimes due to increased popular expectation of periodic and competitive election, and/or poor economic performance or military failure.Growth in global economic output helped modernize many less developed economies. Economic modernization, which includes structural changes like increased rates of urbanization, education, and a rising middle class, unleashes a constellation of social forces with the organizational capacity and education to press for democratic governance.10.
The democratic recessionIt is based off the Freedom and democracy that ‘peaked’ in 2006 and has seen some decline. The freedom in the world since the end of the cold war has some decline, and that almost four times as many as 38 states 38 declined in their freedom scores as improved. Short Essay Questions:Answer both of the following questions. Responses should not be longer than 300 words butanswers should attempt to approach this limit. Each question is worth 5 points and will begraded on accuracy and inclusion of contextual evidence.
1. The Third Wave of Democracy brought a number of states into the ‘democratic club.’ Comment on the prospects for continued democratization in the 21St century, addressing the trends beginning in the 1970s and changes beginning around the mid-00s. What are the implications of either continued or declining democratization? Relate your conclusion to the various topics covered in class and engage in relevant course readings.decrease of legitimacy of authoritarian regimes due to increased popular expectation of periodic and competitive election, and/or poor economic performance or military failure.Growth in global economic output helped modernize many less developed economies. Economic modernization, which includes structural changes like increased rates of urbanization, education, and a rising middle class, unleashes a constellation of social forces with the organizational capacity and education to press for democratic governance.
Changes in the Catholic Church brought about by Vatican II emphasized individual rights and opposition to authoritarian rule. This shift in world view was especially important for the Catholic countries of the Mediterranean and Latin America, as well as the Philippines, Poland and Hungary. Regional Contingency Factor, also known as demonstration effects, happens when success of democracy in one country causes other countries to democratize. External factors, most notably the efforts to spread democracy by the European Union and the United States. International structural factors during the 1970s were cited by Huntington as the causal sources for initiating the Third-Wave. Prospects for European Union membership provided the necessary pressure for creating the critical domestic masses for the push toward democracy in Portugal, Spain, and Greece, since the establishment of democratic institutions was necessary to secure the economic benefits for Community membership.
As other authors have pointed out, E.U. membership has also functioned to inspire democratic changes in a number of former Soviet satellites, including Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic.2. Modernization theory seeks to explain the process by which societies become “modern.” This theory is often tied to questions about changes in regime type on the world stage.
What ismodernization theory and what does it seek to explain and predict? What are the general findings of this theory? What are the potential consequences of modernization? Are youconvinced by the theory?It is important to emphasize that the definition of democracy by those embracing the “Third Wave” and Modernization theories is based on assumptions of American-style democracy equated with socioeconomic inequality and marked absence of social justice. This has been evident in the US socioeconomic structure historically with problems ranging from institutional racism and xenophobia to gender inequality, from the wealthy elites financing elected officials to political party establishment conducting policy to perpetuate an unequal and socially unjust society. Of course, this is not the case only in the US but across the developed nations where capitalism is equated with bourgeois democracy where citizens select among the competing elites presented to them by the established political parties inexorably linked to the socioeconomic elites. American and European scholars conducting research during the Cold War accepted without much criticism the Modernization theory using to explain the transition from traditional preindustrial societies to the modern industrial world. After all, if the non-Western areas did not industrialize and adopt Western liberal-bourgeois institutions it must be because the obstacles to development and democracy are internal and not because the West imposed colonial control, or divided them into spheres of influence. One reason that Modernization theory became popular immediately after WWII was that Westerners were encouraged by the defeat of the Axis Powers and the decolonization movements that followed after the end of the war.
Condemning Stalinist Russia and its satellites, the same scholars, and along with them journalists and politicians assumed that democratization flows from the modernization development model, thus equating democracy with industrial and finance capitalism and its social order of inequality.Longer Essay QuestionAnswer the following question. Responses should not be longer than 500 words butanswers should attempt to approach this limit. This question will be graded on evidenceused to support your answer, accuracy of this evidence, and inclusion of contextualevidence. This question is worth 20 points.
1. The world has been defined by both cooperation and conflict. This has led to growth and death, prosperity and scarcity, advancement and recession. Numerous competing arguments haveprovided explanation of various trends in world politics. This semester we have attempted todetail a wide range of phenomena, processes, and events related to major global issues. The Twentieth Century proved to be the deadliest in human history but since the fall of the SovietUnion and the subsequent end of the Cold War the world has enjoyed a decline in interstatewar; only to suffer a rise in ethnic and civil conflict to the point of numerous genocides. The lasting question raised by this points is as follows: is the world plagued by entropy? First, you must answer this question, then provide evidence to your point by using knowledge gained in this course. There is no “wrong” answer to this question but quality responses must include detailed evidence from the course, a thesis, and logical consistency.
Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, foreign policy experts have been predicting that the United States’ days as global hegemon are coming to a close. But rather than asking themselves which country is most likely to replace the United States, they ought to be asking themselves whether the concept of global hegemony still applies in our era. It increasingly seems that the world will no longer have a single superpower, or group of superpowers, that brings order to international politics. Instead, it will have a variety of powers — including nations, multinational corporations, ideological movements, global crime and terror groups, and human rights organizations — jockeying with each other, mostly unsuccessfully, to achieve their goals. International politics is transforming from a system anchored in predictable, and relatively constant, principles to a system that is, if not inherently unknowable, far more erratic, unsettled, and devoid of behavioral regularities. In terms of geopolitics, we have moved from an age of order to an age of entropy. Entropy is a scientific concept that measures disorder: the higher the entropy, the higher the disorder.
And disorder is precisely what will characterize the future of international politics. In this leaderless world, threats are much more likely to be cold than hot; danger will come less frequently in the form of shooting wars among great powers than diffuse disagreements over geopolitical, monetary, trade, and environmental issues. Problems and crises will arise more frequently and, when they do, will be resolved less cooperatively.