· needed to make results reliable ü Most simplistic

·        Differencetesting.·        Pairedcomparison tests.·        Triangletesting.·        Ranking/Hedonictests.·        Descriptivetesting or profiling.·         10.

2.1) Difference testing: PURPOSE- todetermine whether there are any DIFFERENCES between TWO OR MORE products.INCLUDES:·        Comparison testing·        Triangle testUSES:·        change of ingredient·        Change of makingprocessIdentification ofimprovement Comparison against competitors product 10.2.2)Paired comparison testsPROCEDURE- coded pairs of samples aretested for a difference of characteristicsü  Example – which bread sticks productdo they prefer-ü  At leastsix testers are needed to make results reliable ü  Mostsimplistic test. 10.2.

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3) Ranking/ hedonic test ü  PROCEDURE- Samples given in arandom orderü  Tastershave to rank in order of preference of a specific quality ( e.g. taste,appearance, aroma)ü  Minimumof 10 testers required to give accurate resultsü  USES- to screen best samples fromprevious test10.2.

4) Descriptive testing or profilingPURPOSE-gives a DETAILED EVALUATION of a products CHARACTERISTICSPROCEDURE – Testers GIVEN SENSORY DESCRIPTORSü  APPEARANCE-Colourfulü  ,ODOUR-pungentü  MOUTHTEXTURE- dry, smoothü  FLAVOUR-TEXTURE-mushySIX or more TRAINED TESTERS needed to make accurate choices. 10.3 BREADSTICKS SENSORY ATTRIBUTES:The key attributes of bread are flavour andtexture. The degradation of the taste of bread sticks is related to modernmanufacturing techniques and the speed of large-scale bread production. However, the flavour and stability of the texturemay be improved by using pre-doughs containing yeast or lactic acids. Inaddition to large-scale production, smaller local bakeries produce their ownspecial breadsticks. Regional, ethnic, socioeconomic, and even gender or agefactors also determine which types of breadsticks are produced. Apart from themain constituents of flour, sugar, yeast, and salt, other ingredients of breadsticksinfluence the flavour very little.

Most of the flavour develops from these rawmaterials during dough processing and baking. The flavour of bread is formed inprocessing through oxidation and enzymatic and thermal reactions. Volatilecompounds evaporate in oxidative reactions. Enzymes produce flavour precursorsin dough processing and in the early stage of baking.Themost important flavour compounds of breadsticksare formed during baking, when heat reactions, such as the Maillard reactionand caramelization, take place.

Enzymatic and possible fermentation reactionsinfluence the flavour of breadsticks crumb, whereas heat reactions affect theflavour of breadsticks crust. As a result, the crust and crumb of breadstickshave different flavourproperties. The composition of flour is two-dimensional.Some chemical compounds, such as amino acids, fatty acids, and phenolic acids,act as flavour precursors, forming flavour-active compounds during baking,whereas some volatile compounds in flour affect the perceived flavour. Sugarsgive a slightly sweet note to breadsticks, but they are also important flavourprecursors. During baking, in conjunction with free amino acids, they give aroasted note to the bread, through the Maillard reaction. Yeast break downsugars in dough fermentation to alcohol and carbon monoxide, and flavour-activecompounds, such as alcohols, organic acids, esters, lactones, and carbonyls,are formed as secondary fermentation products.

Salt-free breadsticks has abland taste. Thus, salt is used in breadsticks for improving the taste,texture, and stability, and for strengthening its flavour. As a result,consumers have acquired a taste for bread with added salt even thoughnutritional guidelines still recommended that salt intake be reduced. The tasteof salt-free food may not, at least initially, meet consumers’ expectations,and therefore eating habits may take time to change.As well as its flavourattributes, the overall perception of breadsticks is dramatically influenced byits freshness, colour, texture, and biting properties.

In particular, softness,which is characteristic of fresh breadsticks, decreases quickly during storage.Fat addition, if used, softens the bread crumb, stabilizes texture, andimproves the bread volume, but also improves the perceived flavour by formingcarbonyl compounds during the baking process. Breadsticks made with whole-grainflours often have reduced loaf volume, dense crumb, reduced crumb softness, anda dark crumb and crust.Flavour formation may be influenced not only by theingredients, but also by dough processing.

Dough leavening can also indirectlyinfluence flavour formation because it often determines fermentation time. Thetemperature is important during baking. Both the Maillard reaction andcaramelization occur on the breadsticks surface at about 205–300 °C, while thecrust temperature only slightly exceeds 100 °C. Then the bread crust will gettoasted, nutty, and frying notes together with a characteristic colour.However, if the baking temperature is too high, bitterness develops and thecolour will be too intense. Crispness is the most salient texture attribute ofcrisp breadsticks.

The flavour of crisp bread resembles that of soft breadsticks,although the manufacturing processes are significantly different. The salientdescriptors of breadsticks qualities depend on the ingredients and the processapplied. Bread-sticks are crispy products and it is crispness that appears tobe the single most versatile characteristic that has determined their success andis also the factor that distinguishes one from the other. Even if crispness hasnot yet been satisfactorily de?ned, it is agreed that it is a texturalcharacteristic that has many positive connotations. In addition to its directcontribution to consumer acceptance, texture has important secondary effects,through modulation of ?avour release and its in?uence on appearance.

Textureand food structure are inextricably linked: the micro and macro-structuralcomposition of foods will determine sensory perception and any change in thestructure carries the risk of changing perceived texture and violating consumerexpectation.