· needed to make results reliable ü Most simplistic


comparison tests.

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testing or profiling.


10.2.1) Difference testing:


determine whether there are any DIFFERENCES between TWO OR MORE products.


Comparison testing

Triangle test


change of ingredient

Change of makingprocessIdentification of
improvement Comparison against competitors product


Paired comparison tests

PROCEDURE- coded pairs of samples are
tested for a difference of characteristics

ü  Example – which bread sticks product
do they prefer-

ü  At least
six testers are needed to make results reliable

ü  Most
simplistic test.


10.2.3) Ranking/ hedonic test


ü  PROCEDURE- Samples given in a
random order

ü  Tasters
have to rank in order of preference of a specific quality ( e.g. taste,
appearance, aroma)

ü  Minimum
of 10 testers required to give accurate results

ü  USES- to screen best samples from
previous test

10.2.4) Descriptive testing or profiling




ü  ,ODOUR-

TEXTURE- dry, smooth


SIX or more TRAINED TESTERS needed to make accurate choices.



The key attributes of bread are flavour and
texture. The degradation of the taste of bread sticks is related to modern
manufacturing techniques and the speed of large-scale bread production.

However, the flavour and stability of the texture
may be improved by using pre-doughs containing yeast or lactic acids. In
addition to large-scale production, smaller local bakeries produce their own
special breadsticks. Regional, ethnic, socioeconomic, and even gender or age
factors also determine which types of breadsticks are produced. Apart from the
main constituents of flour, sugar, yeast, and salt, other ingredients of breadsticks
influence the flavour very little. Most of the flavour develops from these raw
materials during dough processing and baking. The flavour of bread is formed in
processing through oxidation and enzymatic and thermal reactions. Volatile
compounds evaporate in oxidative reactions. Enzymes produce flavour precursors
in dough processing and in the early stage of baking.

Themost important flavour compounds of breadsticks
are formed during baking, when heat reactions, such as the Maillard reaction
and caramelization, take place. Enzymatic and possible fermentation reactions
influence the flavour of breadsticks crumb, whereas heat reactions affect the
flavour of breadsticks crust. As a result, the crust and crumb of breadsticks
have different flavourproperties. The composition of flour is two-dimensional.
Some chemical compounds, such as amino acids, fatty acids, and phenolic acids,
act as flavour precursors, forming flavour-active compounds during baking,
whereas some volatile compounds in flour affect the perceived flavour. Sugars
give a slightly sweet note to breadsticks, but they are also important flavour
precursors. During baking, in conjunction with free amino acids, they give a
roasted note to the bread, through the Maillard reaction. Yeast break down
sugars in dough fermentation to alcohol and carbon monoxide, and flavour-active
compounds, such as alcohols, organic acids, esters, lactones, and carbonyls,
are formed as secondary fermentation products. Salt-free breadsticks has a
bland taste. Thus, salt is used in breadsticks for improving the taste,
texture, and stability, and for strengthening its flavour. As a result,
consumers have acquired a taste for bread with added salt even though
nutritional guidelines still recommended that salt intake be reduced. The taste
of salt-free food may not, at least initially, meet consumers’ expectations,
and therefore eating habits may take time to change.As well as its flavour
attributes, the overall perception of breadsticks is dramatically influenced by
its freshness, colour, texture, and biting properties. In particular, softness,
which is characteristic of fresh breadsticks, decreases quickly during storage.
Fat addition, if used, softens the bread crumb, stabilizes texture, and
improves the bread volume, but also improves the perceived flavour by forming
carbonyl compounds during the baking process. Breadsticks made with whole-grain
flours often have reduced loaf volume, dense crumb, reduced crumb softness, and
a dark crumb and crust.Flavour formation may be influenced not only by the
ingredients, but also by dough processing. Dough leavening can also indirectly
influence flavour formation because it often determines fermentation time. The
temperature is important during baking. Both the Maillard reaction and
caramelization occur on the breadsticks surface at about 205–300 °C, while the
crust temperature only slightly exceeds 100 °C. Then the bread crust will get
toasted, nutty, and frying notes together with a characteristic colour.
However, if the baking temperature is too high, bitterness develops and the
colour will be too intense. Crispness is the most salient texture attribute of
crisp breadsticks. The flavour of crisp bread resembles that of soft breadsticks,
although the manufacturing processes are significantly different. The salient
descriptors of breadsticks qualities depend on the ingredients and the process
applied. Bread-sticks are crispy products and it is crispness that appears to
be the single most versatile characteristic that has determined their success and
is also the factor that distinguishes one from the other. Even if crispness has
not yet been satisfactorily de?ned, it is agreed that it is a textural
characteristic that has many positive connotations. In addition to its direct
contribution to consumer acceptance, texture has important secondary effects,
through modulation of ?avour release and its in?uence on appearance. Texture
and food structure are inextricably linked: the micro and macro-structural
composition of foods will determine sensory perception and any change in the
structure carries the risk of changing perceived texture and violating consumer