· Article. · George W.Reynolds (2012). Ethics in Information

  ·      MathieuBouville.

(2008). Whistle-Blowing and Morality. The Journal of Business Ethics.

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81 (3), p579–585. Journal Article. ·      EileenZ. TaylorMary B.

Curtis. (2010). An Examination of the Layers of WorkplaceInfluences in Ethical Judgments: Whistleblowing Likelihood and Perseverance inPublic Accounting. The Journal of Business Ethics.

93 (1), p21–37. Journal Article.·      GranvilleKingIII. (1999). The Implications of an Organization’s Structure onWhistleblowing.

The Journal of Business Ethics. 20 (4), p315–326. Journal Article.

·      GeorgeW.Reynolds (2012). Ethics in Information Technology. 3rd ed. Boston,USA: Joe Sabatino. p331-373. Book.Journal Article.

·      ErikaMcCallister, Timothy Grance, Karen A. Scarfone., (2010). Guide to Protecting the Confidentiality of Personally IdentifiableInformation (PII). National Institute of Standards and Technology SpecialPublication 800-122 Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol.

Spec. Publ. 800-122, 59 pages.Reference   (1504words) Like there’s no rose without athorn, either way whistleblowing would or would not be considered as wrongdoing depending on the weightage of the consequence relating to the company andthe person himself.

Internal whistle blowing is beingencouraged by many legal systems and legislations where there is also aprobability factor that the person may have chosen to leak information aboutthe company which may have negatively affected the society in the future andhence forth the whistleblower might be saved in the face of law, if proven thatthe information leaked would cause a commotion.Whistleblowers need to be insiders,that is, either currently or previously associated with the organization and afurther discrepancy may be made between open and anonymous whistleblowingduring a situation. To conclude and summarize the essay,this literature explains that whistleblowing is a serious ethical dilemma wherefrom the perspective of ethics in general, whistleblowers are faced withdeciding whether to break the bond of loyalty to their respective organizationsor to make a 3rd party aware about it in such a situation apart frombeing beneficial or elsewise.Conclusion “Whistle-blowing is generallyconsidered from the viewpoint of professional morality. Morality rejects theidea of choice and the interests of the professional as immoral. Yet thedreadful retaliations against the messengers of the truth make it necessary formorality to leave a way out of whistle-blowing. Therefore it forges rights -sometimescalled duties- to trump the duty to the public prescribed by professionalcodes.

This serves to hide the obvious fact that whether to blow the whistle isindeed a choice, not a matter of objective duty. One should also notice that ifit fails to achieve anything then blowing the whistle was the wrong decision(or maybe the right decision that nobody would want to make). There isnevertheless a tendency to judge it based on the motivation of the whistleblower. In a way, whistle blowers should strive to act like saints. Yet, it islogically impossible to hold both whistle-blowing as mandatory andwhistle-blowers as heroes or saints. Moreover, this tends to value the greatdeeds of a few over the lives of the many, which is incompatible with the basicassumptions of morality.” (Mathieu Bouville,2008)  More over as per Eileen and Mary’ssayings “Whistle blowing has a volatile reputation, at best. First, it directlyimplies ethical failure and involves one person judging the ethical behavior ofanother.

Second, whistleblowing is often anonymous, depriving the reported-onan individual the right to face his or her accuser. Third, whistleblowing oftenentails reporting outside of the established lines of communication andauthority. Finally, whistleblowing requires trust in those at the top of theorganization to take appropriate actions when they learn of misdeeds by theiremployees.

Unfortunately, even when wrong doing is detrimental to a large numberof people external to the organization (e.g. fraudulent ?nancial reporting,hacking into to the system resulting in arti?cially high stock prices andleaking sensitive data regarding the organization), those internal to theorganization often view the whistleblower’s report (rather than the initialwrongdoing) as the cause of their losses. Evidence of widespread retaliationand cost to the whistleblower himself is well documented. However uncomfortablewe are with the notion of reporting on the behavior of others, whistleblowingis an important organizational control. Indeed, industry surveys  and academic research support the contentionthat reporting mechanisms aid in the prevention and detection of unethical behavior.

” (Eileen Z and Mary B, 2010)”Furthermore, internal disclosurecreates an ethical atmosphere within the organization where employees areencouraged to report unethical behavior. If, however, the organization’sclimate is favorable to suppressing internal disclosure, the wrongdoing may gounreported for months causing the organization to suffer. Although internal andexternal whistleblowing appear to be different, they are conceptually similar.For instance, both forms of whistleblowing start with individuals observingorganizational wrongdoings committed by executives/ managers or employees.

Besides, both use the active voice i.e., verbal communication, as a means ofeliminating the wrongdoing, instead of alternative approaches, such as sabotageor violence where both forms of whistleblowing may threaten organizationalnorms and culture, creating an atmosphere of animosity and retaliation againstthe observer of the wrongdoing.” (Granville, 1999)”On the other hand, in circumstanceswhere the wrongdoer is a higher official, the observer of the wrongdoing couldreport the incident to other members of upper management who could eliminatethe unlawful act. This type of action may be accompanied by the exiting of thewrongdoer and/or rebel. Whistleblowing is a sensitive style of communicationwhich requires the successful communicator to consider the audience, purpose,language, and tone of the wrongdoing that is being disclosed.

There are acouple of benefits to internal whistleblowing as opposed to externaldisclosure. For an example, Internal disclosures allow organizations a chanceto fix problems before they develop into full-blown scandals in the eyes ofpublic.” (Granville, 1999)However according to Granville “whistleblowingcan occur when parties external to the organization are informed of illegal orunlawful wrongdoing within an organization. These individuals may be members ofthe media, government officials, members of public support groups, or variousother parties external to the organization who can bring about change.definition of whistleblowing, however, describes it as taking place when aperson reports individual or corporate wrongdoing to sources either internal orexternal to the organization. Internal whistleblowing may be defined asdisclosure to sources within the organization (for example, members of uppermanagement and supervisors) who can bring about effective change regarding aperceived wrongdoing. Reports of wrongdoing to coworkers (peer reporting),however, would not be considered whistleblowing.

” (Granville,1999)”For an example, an IT professionalof a company may know and have access to the organization’s sensitiveinformation regarding the accounting side of its aspect since he or she may bein charge of the ERP system and may notice the numbers are being fraudulent inthe company’s record. A conscientious employee would call the problem tomanagement’s attention and try to correct it by working with appropriateresources within the company. But what if the employee’s attempt to correct theproblem through internal channels was dissatisfied or ignored? The employeecould then consider becoming a whistle-blower and reporting the problem topeople outside the company, including state or federal agencies that havejurisdiction.

Obviously, such actions could have negative consequences on theemployee’s job, perhaps resulting in vengeance and firing. In May 2005, OracleCorporation paid $8 million to settle charges that it fraudulently collectedfees before providing training for clients and failed to comply with federaltravel regulations in billing for travel and expenses. The charges arose from awhistle-blower lawsuit brought by a former Oracle vice president. As a resultof the settlement, the whistleblower received $1.58 million of the $8 milliontotal settlement.”   (Reynolds, 2012) “Whistle-blowing is an effort by anemployee to attract attention to a negligent, illegal, unethical, abusive, ordangerous act by a company that threatens the public interest and that of theorganization. Whistle-blowers often have access to special information based ontheir expertise or position within the offending organization.

” (Reynolds, 2012) “Althoughthe modern technology that is being used in work places promises competitiveadvantages to the organization it also increases apprehensions about unethicalinformation practices by employees who are caught up in an ethical dilemma.These technologies also makes it much easier to copy and distribute informationamong the organization and 3rd parties as IT professionals gainaccess to equipment and information to violate intellectual property andprivacy decisions.” (Erika et al, 2010) Reviewof Literature                      Thisessay is going to include a short study into the incentives in the aspects ofwhistleblowing instances as well as its influence to an organization.

The question of ethical behavior in the IT industry isbeginning to get spoken. Unlike older and more recognized professions such asmedicine and law, most ethical issues from IT and security professionals havenot yet been organized into law, nor is there a standard obligatory oversightbody that has established a comprehensive code of ethics for IT professionalsand hence it is essential for an organization to look into the ethical dilemmasconcerning privacy, breach of confidentiality, whistleblowing to maintain aprincipled environment for individuals to carry upon their work successfully. Information technology takes over more of our lives andthe ethical difficulties of decisions made by software developers, programmers andIT professionals is only becoming greater day by day. Introduction                           Thepurpose of this learning is to explore and analyze the different consequencesand effects of leaking confidential information about an organization to theenvironment within the organization or outside fighting through ethicaldilemmas and wrong doing.

This paper also gives a brief idea on Whistle blowingin the IT industry mainly and some of the different variables that influencepeople to breach confidentiality to an internal party or third party. The goalis to of this article is to provide brief understanding on whistle blowing. Abstract                     Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology Harinie Sutharson Consequencesof Whistleblowing